Browsing 05. Pan-Commonwealth Forum 5 (PCF5), 2008 by Author "Alluri, Krishna"
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PublicationBuilding Social Capital and Learning for Livelihood: Tech MODE Breaking Barriers( 2008-09) Alluri, Krishna ; BAlasubramanian, K ; Kamaraj, KPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // This paper focuses on discussing Technology Mediated Open and Distance Education (Tech MODE) in the context of Lifelong Learning for Farmers Project of COL. It argues that social capital is a pre-requisite for a learning community. With a strong cognitive social capital, the potentials of strengthening horizontal transfer knowledge is immense. Modern ICT tools such as mobile telephony can help to enhance the horizontal transfer of knowledge. Such technologies can help to support Social Learning Capital which could emerge from the integration of social capital, Informal Lifelong Learning and Quality Learning Conversations. The paper argues that such an approach could offer a new paradigm for extension and human resource development in developing countries. // Paper ID 678
PublicationLife Long Learning (L3) for Farmers: A Pilot Project in Sri Lanka( 2008-09) Coomaraswamy, Uma ; Hirimburegama, Kshanika ; Alluri, KrishnaPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // Over 75% of the population of Sri Lanka lives in the rural sector. More than 70% of rural women are involved in subsistence agriculture and production but lack access to information and are relatively weak in economic empowerment. Several decades of public investment in agriculture, irrigation and community development have not achieved lasting success in rural development. New strategic initiatives are needed to harness engines of pro-poor growth to enhance livelihoods, increased incomes, address gender issues and ensure access to essential services among the poor. // The vision of Lifelong Learning (L3) for Farmers in Sri Lanka is to evolve a self-generating, self-sustaining and self-replicating livelihood improvement programme among rural communities using technology mediated open and distance learning. This concept envisages a global and local partnership between knowledge institutions, ICT centres and rural communities and a win-win situation for all stakeholders. The L3 Programme was launched in Sri Lanka in April 2007 and pilot phase is taking place in three villages. // It is a tri-partite model with mobilized rural community in the centre for facilitating participation and as a base for knowledge management in the community. // The rural community is linked to: // a) location-specific institutional base through partnership with knowledge institutions with expertise in disciplines related to agriculture in a consortium approach. // b) rural ICT centres with appropriate technology to facilitate self-directed learning which is financially viable, economically feasible and socially acceptable. // c) banks for loans to farmers. // The L3 project is complementing the ‘Gama Neguma’ (village upliftment programme) of the Government of SriLanka thus deriving national support. // Presentation will share the experience thus-far gained in the three pilot villages. // Paper ID 108
PublicationODL for Ecopreneurship: Promotion of Multiple Livelihoods among the Women SHGs in Tamil Nadu, India( 2008-09) Thamizoli, R Rengalakshmi P ; Selvamukilan ; Nair, Sudha ; Alluri, Krishna ; Malairajan ; Shanmuganathan, R TPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // The non-availability of productive employment to the increasing population results in wide spread prevalence of poverty and under nutrition. The rural employment opportunities are declining due to a general decline in the rural economy. In India between 1992-2001, there was a sharp decline in the employment growth rate from 3.8% to 2% while there was an increase in the growth in overall development in terms of GDP from 5.4 to 5.9%. The recent World Bank estimates indicates that nearly 30 percent of the Indian population is living on less than $1 a day, and the percentage of rural poverty is likely to be much higher. Among the several causes of poverty, declining rural employment is the most important contributing factor for the rural poverty. While there have been many attempts to combat poverty, their limited success implies that it need a new and innovative strategy. Responding to this the Government of India has recently passed an act on National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, which guarantees 100 days of employment to every household. // Over 65 % of the population depending on agriculture, 1.8 % i.e the present rate of agricultural growth decelerated from 3.8% during 1990’s. The number of people supported by each ha of cropland was 4.6 in 1950 and now it is 9.6 and expected to continue increasing. But the National Sample Survey indicate an overall decline in growth rate of employment especially in the sector of agriculture, which is the primary sector contributing to a significant proportion of the total employment in India. The dwindling employment opportunities for the agricultural labour communities in rural areas are an important concern for the livelihoods of the labour families and the rural economy. Hence, there is an increasing push to diversifying their livelihoods from primary agricultural sector in to farm and non-farm based small and medium enterprises which is the next important sector in providing rural employment especially among rural women. In India, small scale enterprises are the second largest employment provider to the Indian workforce after agriculture. Though it provides considerable size of employment, only 13 % of them are located in rural areas and serving rural communities. Hence it is essential to promote employment generation opportunities in the rural sector especially among the socially and economically disadvantaged groups. The organized sector is not employment intensive and organized self employment is the only opportunity in the future. Thus, there is an urgent need to refocus and develop a ‘New deal for the Self Employed’ especially for the rural women, landless and the tribals. // Harnessing the benefits of science and technology is crucial to realize Sustainable Development in improving the rural living standards as envisaged in the UN millennium development goals. Though the developments in biotechnological sector are tremendous, access to the cost effective biotechnological innovations for small holders is still very limited. Large and medium scale industries are gaining advantage from such technological innovation. Apart from limited access and availability of suitable technologies to suit the scale and capacity of rural women and men producers, imperfect skill and capacity building efforts based on their learning ability and pace, methodologies adopted, extending hand holding support throughout the process of enterprise development etc are few constraints which limits the entrepreneurship among rural women and men. // With regard to the institutional support services, state sponsored agricultural extension services provide support services to the farmers whereas the institutions which facilities rural entrepreneurship is very limited. But attempt has been taken through state sponsored women development schemes in which efforts to evolve or promote science and technology based interventions are limited. In this back drop it is hypothesized that science and technology based microenterprises promotion coupled with microcredit and microfinance has the potential to develop rural entrepreneurship, diversify livelihood strategies, create employment opportunities and enhance the annul income of the poor households. // The paper discusses in detail on how the demystification of technologies available in the shelves of research institutions can help to take the benefits of science and technology to the rural societies using a field experience in establishing ecoenterprises managed by rural women Self Help Groups. Special focus is given on the process involved in facilitating learning through learner centered learning material preparation (like entrepreneurship qualities, successful case studies, market linkages, diversifying products etc), the interactive nature of the training programmes as well as learning materials developed in their local language by understanding their educational and social background, existing knowledge level, learning needs and their learning styles, attitudes, and their cultural background. // Paper ID 394
PublicationRethinking Agricultural Higher Education in Public Institutions of Sub-Saharan Africa( 2008-09) Tenywa, Moses M ; Muyanja, Charles ; Oketch, Sam ; Chemining'wa, George ; Olubayo, Florence ; Mwonga, Samuel ; Ambula, Mary ; Ndege, Speranza ; Nkanata, Gitonga ; Onyango, Christine ; Masinde, Peter ; Karanja, George ; Ndubi, Jessica ; Twinamasiko, Emily ; Kashaija, Imelda ; Mutaka-Nsubuga, Robert ; Oryokot, Joseph ; Booth, Robert ; Hawkins, Richard ; Ekwamu, Adipala ; Alluri, KrishnaPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in crisis. The capacities of institutions to maintain quality is often undermined by declining funding, brain drain, deteriorating infrastructure, civil disorder, and massive expansion of undergraduate enrolment. Graduates are ill-prepared to meet the demands of the employers in the global market and to address the needs and priorities of the local communities. // Past models (U.S. Land grant universities-1960s &1970s and State Agricultural University, India - 1980s), introduced in African universities to overcome the persistent challenges facing agriculture higher education by increasing efficiency and effectiveness through enhanced connectivity between education, research and extension functions, failed. An EDULINK project “Strengthening of university capacity for promoting, facilitating and teaching rural innovation processes (SUCAPRI) has been conceived to address this issue through south-to-south and south-to-north partnership. It involves a network of teaching and research staff in Makerere University in Uganda, four universities (Nairobi, Egerton, Kenyatta, and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology) in Kenya, the International Centre for development-oriented Research in Agriculture in the Netherlands (ICRA), and National Agricultural Research Organizations in Kenya and Uganda (KARI and NARO, respectively). The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) has been strategically co-opted to enhance ICT capacity. // This proposal seeks to provide a platform for sharing with stakeholders our pilot experiences in to strengthen the capacity of five African universities to prepare professionals with the competencies needed to promote agricultural and rural innovations. The platform will provide an opportunity for stakeholders to share relevant lessons and experiences on capacity building that promotes holistic learning to address the real needs and priorities of the communities. It is hoped that we will come out with the answer the question –What is the best model for capacity building that integrates the research, training and outreach functions of agriculture? // Paper ID 474