Browsing by Author "Alluri, Krishna"
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- ItemOpen AccessBuilding Social Capital and Learning for Livelihood: Tech MODE Breaking Barriers(2008-09) Alluri, Krishna; BAlasubramanian, K; Kamaraj, KPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // This paper focuses on discussing Technology Mediated Open and Distance Education (Tech MODE) in the context of Lifelong Learning for Farmers Project of COL. It argues that social capital is a pre-requisite for a learning community. With a strong cognitive social capital, the potentials of strengthening horizontal transfer knowledge is immense. Modern ICT tools such as mobile telephony can help to enhance the horizontal transfer of knowledge. Such technologies can help to support Social Learning Capital which could emerge from the integration of social capital, Informal Lifelong Learning and Quality Learning Conversations. The paper argues that such an approach could offer a new paradigm for extension and human resource development in developing countries. // Paper ID 678
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of Distance Learning Programmes for Agricultural Education In Southern Africa(2004-07) Zachmann, Rainer; Chikoye, Mungule; Siaciwena, Richard; Alluri, KrishnaPCF3 // In 2001, COL and ISTT initiated a programme for agricultural extension workers in Southern Africa to develop and deliver distance-learning materials. Participants from Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia pre-tested selected materials with prospective learners, improved their materials in a 2002 workshop and are presently piloting distance-learning programmes in their countries.
- ItemOpen AccessDistance Learning Methods to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods(2004-07) Kulatunga, Gamini; Alluri, KrishnaPCF3 // The Open University of Sri Lanka in its corporate objectives has identified the need to empower rural communities through distance education and open learning. Distance learning in the sense that the student is spatially and temporarily removed from the centre and open learning to connote open entry and open curriculum including the methods of assessment. The Commonwealth of Learning too has identified life-long-learning as a method to contribute to knowledge and skills of small-holder farmers and to enable them participate in the increasingly complex food-production market chains. // For the last three years the Open University and COL have collaborated to identify rural community needs and capabilities in Sri Lanka and to create opportunities for those communities to examine and critique modern technologies used in rural areas and suggest modifications from user perspective. These finding were recorded and broadcast over the national community radio service as a method of evoking awareness among rural people and to obtain a feedback from them. // The rural technologies identified and the participatory work carried out to make these identified artefacts and processes available to the people have given the Open University the base to commence a distance education programme. The Norwegian Development Fund is assisting the Open University, to commence a programme in 2004, to take these technologies to the rural people thereby making them critically aware of the technology options available to them and enabling them to take part, jointly, in the process involved in their evaluation and selection.
- ItemOpen AccessDistance Learning Program for Agricultural Education in Southern Africa(2002-07) Chikoye, Mungule; Alluri, Krishna; Siaciwena, Richard; Zachmann, RainerPCF2 // The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) in collaboration with the In-Service Training Trust (ISTT) and the Directorate of Distance Education (DDE) at the University of Zambia is developing a distance-learning program for agricultural education in Southern Africa. The goal is to contribute to sustainable improvement of food security and alleviation of poverty, while protecting resources and environment, through access to knowledge by distance learning. // E-mailing and teleconferencing were used in conceptualizing the project, and in planning and implementing the program. ISTT organized an initial planning workshop on ”Materials development for a distance learning program for agricultural education in Southern Africa”. Thirteen participants, including four women, came from Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. They represented governmental and nongovernmental institutions, engaged in agricultural training, research, and/or extension. // The workshop was highly interactive. The discussions revealed the need for distance learning materials in cowpea and soybean for extension workers. Field visits and discussions with resource-poor farmers emphasized the relevance of simple, but scientifically precise distance learning materials. // Participants, using their experience and knowledge in agriculture, farmers’ priorities, and principles of distance learning, produced course curriculum, course outline and drafts for the learning materials. After considering various media, print medium was chosen to effectively reach the target audience. Participants developed a long-term work plan. // Using an e-mail listserv and teleconferencing, resource persons provided guidance to the participants to improve their drafts. Lack of convenient and frequent access to telecommunications was a major obstacle. While developing learning materials through intervention from outside experts might have been easier, the project is deliberately based on participation and partnership to aim at effective and sustainable outputs. // Next steps will be a pretest with selected learning materials, and a follow-up workshop. //
- ItemOpen AccessDo Educational Technology Training Workshops in Developing Countries Really Work?(2004-07) Fenrich, Peter; Alluri, KrishnaPCF3 // COL organized a workshop on designing and developing computer-based and webbased training materials in Pune, India. The focus was on instructional design, media selection, and user-interface design for creating instructional new media software. Participants completed their projects with support from the facilitator through email listserv. This paper analyses the experiences.
- ItemOpen AccessEducation for Sustainable Development: Reaching the Masses(2007-11-26) Daniel, John; Alluri, Krishna; Menon, MohanFourth International Conference on Environmental Education, Environmental Education towards a Sustainable Future: Partners for the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, Ahmedabad, India, 26 November 2007, Education for Sustainable Development: Reaching the Masses, John Daniel, Krishna Alluri and Mohan Menon Commonwealth of Learning // In order to succeed education for sustainable development must reach the masses. This means three things. First, we must focus on those who can multiply the message, especially teachers, working not just in the classroom but through open schooling systems. Second, we must cultivate lifelong environmental learning, including that related to climate change and water resources management. Third, it follows from these two imperatives that we must use learning technologies and teaching media at scale. We describe the work of the Commonwealth of Learning in these three areas. Technology-mediated open and distance education makes it possible for the Centre for Environmental Education to teach its Green Teacher Diploma to thousands of teachers. Information technology kiosks in villages allow farmers to become lifelong learners, increasing their prosperity and lessening their environmental impact.
- ItemOpen AccessHelping Farmers Prosper: Announcing a New Model for Partnership(2006-07-14) Daniel, John; Alluri, KrishnaI shall first describe the work of the Commonwealth of Learning, which is a small but dynamic Commonwealth intergovernmental agency based just over the Rockies in Vancouver. We have only been working in agriculture for a few years but we think that we have hit upon a winning formula to help farmers and landless agricultural labourers (henceforward referred to as 'farmers') improve their livelihoods in India. The approach looks very positive and may have great potential for the Commonwealth. Perhaps you can help to implement it.
- ItemOpen AccessInnovative Use of Internet-Based Collaboration Tools and Methods in an Institutional Context(2004-07) Lachkovics, Andrew; Metz, Thomas; Goldberg, Elizabeth; Alluri, Krishna; Quek, PaulPCF3 // This paper reports on the experiences and challenges related to first exposure to Wiki in an institutional environment. It examines methods of encouraging contribution, installation, configuration and use of the tool. It elaborates on institutional changes and support needed to adopt the tool.
- ItemOpen AccessThe L3Farmers Project: Report and recommendations to the Commonwealth of Learning on Open and Distance Lifelong Learning for Smallholder Farmers and Agricultural Communities(2004) Latchem, Colin; Maru, Ajit; Alluri, KrishnaThe following report is based upon Commonwealth of Learning (COL) initiated online discussions, meetings at the second Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning in Durban, South Africa, and research by the authors into open and distance learning (ODL) and information and communication technology (ICT) for agricultural development in low-income countries. It recommends a collaborative L3Farmers Project by the National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems (NARES), Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and COL. The report evidences a massive need to improve smallholders’ knowledge and skills in the food production market chain in low-income countries. Such is the nature, scale and extent of this need that it cannot be met by conventional extension alone, but it can be met by employing ICT, ODL and innovatory extension methods.
- ItemOpen AccessLessons Learned About Giving an Educational Technology Training Workshop in a Developing Country(2002-07) Fenrich, Peter; Alluri, KrishnaPCF2 // The Commonwealth of Learning, in cooperation with the Advanced Computing Training School of the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing in India, sponsored a workshop on designing and developing instructional new media (computer-based and web-based training) materials in Pune, India. The British Columbia Institute of Technology was engaged to provide a facilitator for the training. This paper describes what was done that helped make the project a success as well as ideas that will help make future educational technology training projects in developing countries more successful. //
- ItemOpen AccessLife Long Learning (L3) for Farmers: A Pilot Project in Sri Lanka(2008-09) Coomaraswamy, Uma; Hirimburegama, Kshanika; Alluri, KrishnaPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // Over 75% of the population of Sri Lanka lives in the rural sector. More than 70% of rural women are involved in subsistence agriculture and production but lack access to information and are relatively weak in economic empowerment. Several decades of public investment in agriculture, irrigation and community development have not achieved lasting success in rural development. New strategic initiatives are needed to harness engines of pro-poor growth to enhance livelihoods, increased incomes, address gender issues and ensure access to essential services among the poor. // The vision of Lifelong Learning (L3) for Farmers in Sri Lanka is to evolve a self-generating, self-sustaining and self-replicating livelihood improvement programme among rural communities using technology mediated open and distance learning. This concept envisages a global and local partnership between knowledge institutions, ICT centres and rural communities and a win-win situation for all stakeholders. The L3 Programme was launched in Sri Lanka in April 2007 and pilot phase is taking place in three villages. // It is a tri-partite model with mobilized rural community in the centre for facilitating participation and as a base for knowledge management in the community. // The rural community is linked to: // a) location-specific institutional base through partnership with knowledge institutions with expertise in disciplines related to agriculture in a consortium approach. // b) rural ICT centres with appropriate technology to facilitate self-directed learning which is financially viable, economically feasible and socially acceptable. // c) banks for loans to farmers. // The L3 project is complementing the ‘Gama Neguma’ (village upliftment programme) of the Government of SriLanka thus deriving national support. // Presentation will share the experience thus-far gained in the three pilot villages. // Paper ID 108
- ItemOpen AccessLife Long Learning for Farmers (L3Farmers): Open, Distance and Technology-Mediated Learning for Extension for Smallholders(2004-07) Latchem, Colin; Maru, Ajit; Alluri, KrishnaPCF3 // The following paper summarises the authors’ report to the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) which was based on meetings at the 2nd Pan Commonwealth Forum; a COL-initiated virtual conference (L3Farmers) on open, distance and technologymediated learning strategies for agricultural extension and possible collaboration between the National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems (NARES), Consultative Group on International Research (CGIAR) and COL which involved over 90 agricultural researchers and developers across the globe; and desk studies. It discusses the transformation of extension for smallholders in low income countries, suggests how open learning and technology can help to achieve this, and outlines a plan of action in accord with COL’s Three year Plan, 2003-2006 and its aim of ‘addressing the massive need to improve knowledge and skills of small-scale farmers to enable them to participate in the increasingly complex food/market chains, and improve their livelihood’ (www.col.org/programmes/reporting/3year_plan.htm).
- ItemOpen AccessNetworks for Lifelong Learning and Rural Poverty Reduction in Asia – Lessons and Challenges(2006) Balasubramanian, K; Maru, Ajit; Alluri, KrishnaWho should fund development? This billion dollar question has ideological, perceptional, operational and political connotations. Public sector, private sector, donor agencies and external aid are some of the sources which fund development at different levels in different regions. Scholars like Jeffrey Sachs, Special Advisor on the Millennium Development Goals to the United Nations Secretary General, argue for enhanced external aid and donor agency support to break the poverty trap in developing countries and achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In an interview, he1 reiterated that “Donor financing for the MDGs should take a new approach. Developing countries should design MDG-based poverty reduction strategies, including investment plans to 2015, and donors should fund those strategies”.
- ItemOpen AccessODL for Ecopreneurship: Promotion of Multiple Livelihoods among the Women SHGs in Tamil Nadu, India(2008-09) Thamizoli, R Rengalakshmi P; Selvamukilan; Nair, Sudha; Alluri, Krishna; Malairajan; Shanmuganathan, R TPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // The non-availability of productive employment to the increasing population results in wide spread prevalence of poverty and under nutrition. The rural employment opportunities are declining due to a general decline in the rural economy. In India between 1992-2001, there was a sharp decline in the employment growth rate from 3.8% to 2% while there was an increase in the growth in overall development in terms of GDP from 5.4 to 5.9%. The recent World Bank estimates indicates that nearly 30 percent of the Indian population is living on less than $1 a day, and the percentage of rural poverty is likely to be much higher. Among the several causes of poverty, declining rural employment is the most important contributing factor for the rural poverty. While there have been many attempts to combat poverty, their limited success implies that it need a new and innovative strategy. Responding to this the Government of India has recently passed an act on National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, which guarantees 100 days of employment to every household. // Over 65 % of the population depending on agriculture, 1.8 % i.e the present rate of agricultural growth decelerated from 3.8% during 1990’s. The number of people supported by each ha of cropland was 4.6 in 1950 and now it is 9.6 and expected to continue increasing. But the National Sample Survey indicate an overall decline in growth rate of employment especially in the sector of agriculture, which is the primary sector contributing to a significant proportion of the total employment in India. The dwindling employment opportunities for the agricultural labour communities in rural areas are an important concern for the livelihoods of the labour families and the rural economy. Hence, there is an increasing push to diversifying their livelihoods from primary agricultural sector in to farm and non-farm based small and medium enterprises which is the next important sector in providing rural employment especially among rural women. In India, small scale enterprises are the second largest employment provider to the Indian workforce after agriculture. Though it provides considerable size of employment, only 13 % of them are located in rural areas and serving rural communities. Hence it is essential to promote employment generation opportunities in the rural sector especially among the socially and economically disadvantaged groups. The organized sector is not employment intensive and organized self employment is the only opportunity in the future. Thus, there is an urgent need to refocus and develop a ‘New deal for the Self Employed’ especially for the rural women, landless and the tribals. // Harnessing the benefits of science and technology is crucial to realize Sustainable Development in improving the rural living standards as envisaged in the UN millennium development goals. Though the developments in biotechnological sector are tremendous, access to the cost effective biotechnological innovations for small holders is still very limited. Large and medium scale industries are gaining advantage from such technological innovation. Apart from limited access and availability of suitable technologies to suit the scale and capacity of rural women and men producers, imperfect skill and capacity building efforts based on their learning ability and pace, methodologies adopted, extending hand holding support throughout the process of enterprise development etc are few constraints which limits the entrepreneurship among rural women and men. // With regard to the institutional support services, state sponsored agricultural extension services provide support services to the farmers whereas the institutions which facilities rural entrepreneurship is very limited. But attempt has been taken through state sponsored women development schemes in which efforts to evolve or promote science and technology based interventions are limited. In this back drop it is hypothesized that science and technology based microenterprises promotion coupled with microcredit and microfinance has the potential to develop rural entrepreneurship, diversify livelihood strategies, create employment opportunities and enhance the annul income of the poor households. // The paper discusses in detail on how the demystification of technologies available in the shelves of research institutions can help to take the benefits of science and technology to the rural societies using a field experience in establishing ecoenterprises managed by rural women Self Help Groups. Special focus is given on the process involved in facilitating learning through learner centered learning material preparation (like entrepreneurship qualities, successful case studies, market linkages, diversifying products etc), the interactive nature of the training programmes as well as learning materials developed in their local language by understanding their educational and social background, existing knowledge level, learning needs and their learning styles, attitudes, and their cultural background. // Paper ID 394
- ItemOpen AccessOpen and Distance Learning in a Changing World: Selected speeches of Sir John Daniel and colleagues (2007-2008)(2009) Daniel, John; Kanwar, Asha; West, Paul; Uvalić-Trumbić, Stamenka; Alluri, Krishna; Menon, MohanThis booklet contains an open letter to the next US president – written before the election – and six speeches delivered in different countries at various events. In giving the selection the title Open and Distance Learning in a Changing World we have tried to show how the core principles of open and distance learning (ODL) are being implemented in new ways to meet emerging development needs
- ItemOpen AccessRethinking Agricultural Higher Education in Public Institutions of Sub-Saharan Africa(2008-09) Tenywa, Moses M; Muyanja, Charles; Oketch, Sam; Chemining'wa, George; Olubayo, Florence; Mwonga, Samuel; Ambula, Mary; Ndege, Speranza; Nkanata, Gitonga; Onyango, Christine; Masinde, Peter; Karanja, George; Ndubi, Jessica; Twinamasiko, Emily; Kashaija, Imelda; Mutaka-Nsubuga, Robert; Oryokot, Joseph; Booth, Robert; Hawkins, Richard; Ekwamu, Adipala; Alluri, KrishnaPCF5 Sub-theme: Livelihoods // Higher Education Institutions (HEI) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are in crisis. The capacities of institutions to maintain quality is often undermined by declining funding, brain drain, deteriorating infrastructure, civil disorder, and massive expansion of undergraduate enrolment. Graduates are ill-prepared to meet the demands of the employers in the global market and to address the needs and priorities of the local communities. // Past models (U.S. Land grant universities-1960s &1970s and State Agricultural University, India - 1980s), introduced in African universities to overcome the persistent challenges facing agriculture higher education by increasing efficiency and effectiveness through enhanced connectivity between education, research and extension functions, failed. An EDULINK project “Strengthening of university capacity for promoting, facilitating and teaching rural innovation processes (SUCAPRI) has been conceived to address this issue through south-to-south and south-to-north partnership. It involves a network of teaching and research staff in Makerere University in Uganda, four universities (Nairobi, Egerton, Kenyatta, and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology) in Kenya, the International Centre for development-oriented Research in Agriculture in the Netherlands (ICRA), and National Agricultural Research Organizations in Kenya and Uganda (KARI and NARO, respectively). The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) has been strategically co-opted to enhance ICT capacity. // This proposal seeks to provide a platform for sharing with stakeholders our pilot experiences in to strengthen the capacity of five African universities to prepare professionals with the competencies needed to promote agricultural and rural innovations. The platform will provide an opportunity for stakeholders to share relevant lessons and experiences on capacity building that promotes holistic learning to address the real needs and priorities of the communities. It is hoped that we will come out with the answer the question –What is the best model for capacity building that integrates the research, training and outreach functions of agriculture? // Paper ID 474
- ItemOpen AccessSummary: Livelihoods(2008-07-17) Alluri, KrishnaTranscript of a summary presentation at the Fifth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning London, UK, 17 July 2008. Summary delivered by Krishna Alluri, Commonwealth of Learning.
- ItemOpen AccessTechnology, Education and Sustainable Development(2006-02-16) Alluri, Krishna; Menon, Mohan; Daniel, JohnOur title is Technology, Education and Sustainable Development. Before I joined COL I spent a few years as Assistant Director-General for Education at UNESCO. Whilst I was there UNESCO's Education Sector was charged with laying the groundwork for the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development. It is a special pleasure to be in Ahmedabad, where the first major international meeting of the decade took place in January 2005. The Ahmedabad Declaration that emerged from that meeting has been very helpful to us in preparing this lecture.
- ItemOpen AccessTertiary TVET: Pathways for Pioneers(2008-10-01) Daniel, John; Alluri, Krishna; Mallet, JoshuaI have prepared these remarks with two of my COL colleagues, Dr. Krishna Alluri and Mr Joshua Mallet. Dr. Alluri, a distinguished expert on the nexus between education, learning and agricultural development, heads the COL programme sector that we call Learning for Livelihoods. I have just returned from visiting, in the eastern part of your country, the Lifelong Learning for Farmers programme that he initiated. This programme, which is being run in close collaboration with the Eastern University in that region and with other Sri Lankan universities in four other locations, is visibly helping to improve rural prosperity.
- ItemOpen AccessTheoretical Perspectives on the Contributions of COL-PROTEIN to Open and Distance Learning for Development(2012) Alluri, Krishna; Balasubramanian, KDuring 2000 to 2009, the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) supported the innovative use of open and distance learning (ODL) to alleviate poverty in rural areas of the world. In particular, the programme known as Poverty Reduction Outcomes through Education, Innovations and Networks (COL-PROTEIN) supported initiatives that used ODL and information and communication technologies (ICT) to build capacities for community development in areas such as food security, environmental protection, women’s empowerment, microenterprise and good governance. Development institutions from various Commonwealth countries were encouraged to apply under the programme. Proposals were selected through a peer review process. Successful applicants then received technical and financial support from COL. Among these participants were nongovernmental organisations, research and development institutions, universities and colleges. This report provides a follow-up analysis of the experiences of COL-PROTEIN. It discusses the contributions of ODL to development, focusing on the outcomes from four theoretical perspectives: 1) social capital; 2) horizontal transfer of knowledge; 3) self-directed learning; and 4) reaching the unreached and gendered learning. After examining the strength and weaknesses of the approach, the report concludes with a discussion of the influences of COL- PROTEIN projects on Lifelong Learning for Farming (L3F) and other initiatives of COL