Browsing by Author "Raphael, Christina"
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- ItemOpen AccessA Critical Review of eLearning Research Trends in Tanzania(2018-07) Mtebe, Joel S; Raphael, Christina; Gaskell, AnneThis study investigated research trends on eLearning implementation in Tanzania from 2007 to 2017. A total of 74 articles from electronic databases, conference proceedings, and selected electronic journals were reviewed. Using content analysis, the study found that there is an increasing interest in eLearning research with the majority of studies conducted by researchers from three universities. Students was found to be the most studied population group while quantitative research design being the most preferred research design. It was also revealed that mobile and game based learning were the least investigated eLearning technologies despite the proliferation of mobile telephony in Tanzania. Internet access and lack of support were the most ranked challenges hindering eLearning implementation in Tanzania. This study will also help policy makers to promote further research in areas where the research gaps have been identified and find interventions to overcome barriers that hinder eLearning implementation in Tanzania.
- ItemOpen AccessEliciting In-service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for 21st-Century Skills in Tanzania(2018-12) Mtebe, Joel S; Raphael, Christina; Gaskell, AnneThe Tanzania Vision 2025 articulates the country's aspiration of becoming an industrialized and middle-income country by 2025. The education sector, which is the main driving force towards realizing this goal, is expected to bring about the right mix of high-quality skills for the rapid development of quality and adequate human resources. The kind of revolution needed is nevertheless impossible if teachers are not equipped with the necessary skills to bring in the desirable changes. This study adapted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for 21st-Century skills to investigate teachers’ competence levels of 21st-Century skills using self-reported survey and classroom observations from a sample of 132 teachers in 20 schools in Pwani and Morogoro regions. The study found out that many teachers have moderate self-reported confidence in all TPACK elements with technology. Conversely, teachers self-reported confidence levels in content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge was found to be high. The findings from this study provides valuable insights on how teachers use ICT to prepare students for 21-Century skills capable of supporting the country’s efforts towards developing an industrial economy.
- ItemOpen AccessPromoting Youth Employment through Information and Communication Technologies in Vocational Education in Tanzania(2020-03-20) Mtebe, Joel S; Kissaka, Mussa M; Raphael, Christina; Steven, JosephineAfrica is the most youthful continent in the world with approximetly 20% of the global youth population and is expected to increase by 42% by the end of 2030. This great number of youth which can be used as a huge asset for the country’s economic growth and development is largely unemployed. As a result, governments have introduced Vocational Education and Training (VET) by providing occupation oriented trainings in a bid to reduce unemployment amongst youth. Despite these efforts, the majority of VET graduates remain unemployed due to the inadequate employability skills needed in the current job market. This study implemented a project aiming at enhancing employability skills through ICT in four centres: Nangwa VTC, Manyara VTC, Arusha VTC, Mto wa Mbu FDC, and Ketumbeine secondary school with a total of 100 students and 20 teachers. Through participating in the project, it was expected that students would gain the ICT skills as well as the 21st-Century skills required in the current workplace. At the end of the project, an evaluation was conducted using a self-administered survey where a total of 80 students were involved in the four centres. Moreover, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), non-participatory observation, and documentary review were adopted as qualitative data instruments. It was found that that students’ perceived competence and skills levels on technology knowledge of multimedia as moderate (M=3.63) while that of CISCO were found to be high with 76 students graduated and obtained a CISCO certification. In terms of the 21st-Century skills, it was found that students’ self-reported confidence levels in all four 21st-Century skills domains were found to be high with collaboration skills (M=4.5) being the highest followed by communication skills (M=4.26), leadership (4.20) and creativity and innovation (4.06). Nonetheless, the lowest 21st-Century skills element was critical thinking skills (M=3.9). The findings from this study show that with some planned activities within colleges, students can easily acquire the needed employability skills. The implication of these findings are discussed.