Browsing by Author "Safdar, Muhammad"
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- ItemOpen AccessAssessing the Needs of Literacy personnel in Non Formal Basic Education(2010-11) Ghazi, Shakil A; Hafeez, Amtul; Safdar, Muhammad; Yaqoob, MuhammadDue to population explosion and swiftly increasing demand for education even developed countries are unable to overcome the prevailing challenges through formal system of education. Most of the developing countries are in miserable situation regarding level of education and literacy. Attacking poverty has become an international concern for placing in the paradigm of ‘education and learning for sustainable development’ in consideration of the reality that almost half of the world’s population live in poverty. Unfortunately, more than half of the population is living below the poverty line in Pakistan. (World Bank, 2000) Due to scarce resources and financial constraints developing countries are unable to cope with the drastic demand for education and consequently non formal education (NFE) seems blessing to meet this challenge of poverty alleviation.
- ItemOpen AccessBarriers To The Effective Use Of Information And Communication Technologies In Distance Education(2013-11) Ghazi, Shakil A; Hafeez, Amtul; Safdar, MuhammadInformation and communication technologies (ICTs) have revolutionized all aspects of human life on this planet and these have created unprecedented challenges and unparallel opportunities for advancement on this globe. Teachers are leaders and nation builders, hence, prepare generations to meet the accelerating challenges created by ICTs. The study focused upon the problems and issues pertaining to the effective use of ICTs in teacher training in distance education. // The study was descriptive in nature therefore, survey was considered appropriate for data collection. A sample of 50 teachers and 200 students of BEd, MEd and MA Education were taken randomly in 2012. Data were collected via a questionnaire and top 10 barriers were solicited from the respective respondents. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The results of the study arrayed lack of training, power failure, lack of technical support, Lack of peer support, slow connectivity, lack of quality software, lack of quality hardware, lack of software, lack of knowledge and lack of confidence as top 10 barriers among tutors. Sequence was changed among students as lack of hardware, power failure, lack of quality hardware, lack of software, lack of quality software, lack of training, lack of technical support, lack of peer support, slow connectivity, and lack of confidence were arrayed as top 10 barriers/problems. Conclusions and recommendations were made in the light of findings. // Paper ID: 321
- ItemOpen AccessBridging Digital Divide: A Step Towards Excellence in Higher Education in Pakistan(2013-11) Safdar, Muhammad; Baloch, Irshad H; Nfees, MuhammadThe study focused upon a sea change of initiatives taken by HEC to address the knowledge gap or “digital divide” in the holy period of seven years. Swift and simultaneous promotion in research publication originated by these initiatives was also assessed in this paper. // Some salient features of its ICTs policy were establishment of Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN), PERN 2, National digital Library (NDL), Pakistan Research Repository (PRR), Video Conferencing facility, Combating Plagiarism and ICT ranking of universities. // To develop and bring the higher education institutions at par with international standards and best possible utilization of ICT in higher education, HEC has launched ICT ranking process in Pakistani universities. // As a result of these revolutionary initiatives, research output has been increased sharply and approached to enviable 300% increase in international publications in the modest period of seven years. Recently, Pakistan has been awarded ‘rising star’ status in five fields: the maximum fields for any country, from an internationally reputed publicising house, Thomson Reuters in its publication ‘science watch’ survey (www.sciencewatch.com). The above prestige, swift and consistent increase in publications is result of gigantic and dedicative efforts of HEC for the promotion of higher education in Pakistan through its robust ICT policy. // Paper IDL 289
- ItemOpen AccessDistance Education as a Strategy for Eliminating Gender Disparity in Pakistan(2008-09) Hussain, Irshad; Adeeb, Muhammad Aslam; Safdar, Muhammad; Rahmanai, Sabiha HameedPCF5 Sub-theme: Governance and social justice // This paper examines the role of distance education in addressing the issue of gender disparity in Pakistan. The study aimed to (a). analyze the present situation of gender disparity in education sector at different levels in Pakistan. (b). examine the role of distance education in eliminating gender discrimination in Pakistan. (c). evaluate the impact of distance education on gender empowerment. (d) identify the problems in addressing gender issues through distance education in Pakistan. (e). suggest an appropriate strategy for eliminating gender disparity through distance education in Pakistan. This study was conducted in Multan, Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan Regions. The study consisted on three populations: (i). B.A level female students, (ii). their parents and (iii). academicians of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. Researchers adopted stratified sampling technique for collecting data from students & their parents and administrators/tutors. The researchers used questionnaires (for 600 students, 60 parents and 60 administrators/tutors) developed on five point rating (likert) scale and semi-structured interview schedules as research tools to collect data. Researchers interviewed 60 students, 15 parents and 15 administrators/tutors (20 students, five parents and five administrators/tutors from each region respectively). The data collected was analyzed through quantitative (mean score) as well as qualitative approaches. The data supported by the interviews were analyzed and included in the tables. The study concluded that distance education is being extensively used in Pakistan. It provides equal opportunities to all individuals of the society to “Education for All”. It is feasible for female population catering their academic needs particularly those of the culturally restricted areas. It is an appropriate strategy to address the issue of gender discrimination in Pakistan. // Paper ID 609
- ItemOpen AccessEnhancing Quality and Quantity of Higher Education Through Information and Communication Technologies(2013-11) Masood, Kamran; Safdar, Muhammad; Hussain, Muhammad A; Ahmed, AftabPakistan the second largest country in South Asia, is sixth most populous country in the world, with a population of 187 million of which about 100 million young men and women are below the age of 30. According to the Report of the Steering Committee on Higher Education (2001) only 2.6% (approximately 475,000) of our students aged between 17-23 were enrolled in higher education institutions. It was worst as compared to 10% of India, 20% in China, 32% in Malaysia, 43% in Thailand and 68% in Korea, even less than Rwanda. Besides inaccessibility of higher education to 95% of this age group, quality education and gender disparity were another two major concerns to Pakistani higher education. Doubtless to say that information and communication technologies (ICTs) have the capacity to address these concerns simultaneously. Therefore, to tackle these problems with technology in this information technology era, Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP) was established in 2002. The model of VUP has been acknowledgment as the winner of the role model status which can be replicated by other developing countries. In the holy period of 9 years, the VUP has added feathers in the cap of Pakistani higher education by providing high quality education to thousands of male and female students through state-of-the-art technological infrastructure. Interestingly, more than 30,000 students appeared in the final examination 2011 held in more than 115 exam centers in 90 cities all over the country. Despite of this elegance, majority of the people are still unaware of this niche facility of higher education at their thresholds especially in the rural and far-flung areas of Pakistan. Therefore, media campaign may be launched so that enrollment may be increased by leaps and bounds. The VU may establish more Private Virtual Campuses (PVCs) to facilitate the remote area students. With the collaboration of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) an attractive package/incentive may be given to the culturally restricted female students for Internet surfing. // Paper ID: 316
- ItemOpen AccessPromises and Challenges of IoT in Education(2019-09) Safdar, Muhammad; Safdar, Gulfam A; Hafeez, Amtul; Malik, Muhammad Anternet of Things (IoT) in education is a hot topic and is getting ever increasing popularity over the globe because it is effective, quick, dynamic, empowering, individual and comprehensive. IoT has also posed some vital challenges to students, educators and administrators. Main purpose of the study was to assess the role of IoT in education. Moreover, issues and challenges regarding IoT in education were also analyzed in this study. A sample of 200 faculty members and PhD scholars was taken randomly. A questionnaire on five points Lickert scale was used as a research tool for the collection of data and its reliability was .86 (Chronbach’s Alpha). Collected data were analyzed through SPSS XVIII. The study revealed that IoT helps in shaping smart lesson plans, smart classrooms and smart campuses. This technology allows connectivity of students and educators around the globe. IoT reduces gender disparity and increases students’ engagement and teachers’ efficiency. This technology promotes collaboration and creativity, enhances access to information, improves safety and enriches teaching learning process. Though this technology helps in improving performance of education system yet some challenges and issues were also witnessed in this study. Lack of financial resources, development, complexity and implementation of IoT, ethics, trust and privacy, quality and data security were major challenges of IoT in education. // Paper ID 189
- ItemOpen AccessPromoting Morality in Virtual Reality Learning Systems(2019-09) Safdar, Muhammad; Safdar, Gulfam A; Hafeez, Amtul; Malik, Muhammad AUnprecedented advancement in information and communication technologies has opened new vistas of education and training. Virtual Reality Environments (VLEs) are becoming increasingly popular and expanding rapidly. Anyhow, in any educational setting, teachers are role model for their learners and they are responsible for their academic as well as moral development. Teachers and educational institutions provide opportunities of learning moral values to their students. Institution will have to develop a variety of means for moral development of students (Kaur, 2015). Main purpose of this study was to assess role of teachers and institutions in promoting morality in a virtual reality system. Data were collected via a questionnaire and reliability of the research tool was .80 (Chronbach’s Alpha).Randomly taken sample of the study consisted of 60 students. SPSS XVII version was used for the analysis of data. // Paper ID 195
- ItemOpen AccessRole of Allama Iqbal Open University in Promoting Access and Demoting Gender Disparity in Higher Education in Pakistan(2010-11) Safdar, Muhammad; Hussain, Irshad; Hafeez, AmtulHigher education has emerged as a key factor for socio-economic development in the recent decades. Amazingly, more persons are attending colleges and universities in this century than in all of the human history (Goodman, 1999) and it is rightly argued by Manuel Castells, if knowledge and information are electricity of the new world economy, universities are one of the power sources on which the development process of 21st century has to rely. (Altbach, 1999) About 64 years ago Quaid-i-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Father of the Nation) has expressed the importance of higher education in these words, “Of all the economic growth initiatives available to the Government of Pakistan, perhaps none holds more promise and the possibility of large scale and sustainable returns than the effectiveness and expansion of the Higher Education infrastructure in Pakistan”. (GoP, 2009) Unfortunately, despite of these golden words of our hero at the advent of this millennium the total number of students in higher education was about 2.6% for the age group of 17-23 which was very low and Pakistan ranked amongst the worst in the world in higher education enrolment ratios, as compared to China (13%), Malaysia (26%), Thailand (39%) and Korea (83%). (HEC MTDF, 2005-2010) // Before the inception of Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, the total number of students in Pakistan’s higher education system was approximately 475,000. Of these students, only 139,000 have attended universities-representing a less than 0.8% enrollment ratio for higher education, i.e. fewer than 8 of every 1000 Pakistanis between the ages of 17 and 23 have attended university. Enhancing accessibility and participation in higher education is an important goal of Higher Education Commission. (HEC, 2008) Soon after the establishment of HEC this ratio increased drastically and it approached to 5%. HEC aimed to continue this progress to 10% by 2015 and subsequently to 15% by 2020. (HEC MTDF, 2005-2010)
- ItemOpen AccessRole of Non-Formal Basic Education in Rural Development in Punjab(2010-11) Malik, Muhammad A; Jumani, Nabi B; Safdar, Muhammad; Ghazi, Shakeel ADue to population explosion and swiftly increasing demand for education even developed countries are unable to overcome the prevailing challenges through formal system of education. Most of the developing countries are in miserable situation regarding level of education and literacy. Attacking poverty has become an international concern for placing in the paradigm of ‘education and learning for sustainable development’ in consideration of the reality that almost half of the world’s population live in poverty. Pakistan is the sixth populous country in the world and unfortunately, more than half of the population is living below the poverty line. Educated and well off urban population lives not so very differently from their counterparts in other countries of similar income range, or even of their counterparts in Western countries. However, the poor and rural inhabitants of Pakistan are being left behind (World Bank, 2002). Due to scarce resources and financial constraints developing countries are unable to cope with the drastic demand for education and consequently non-formal education (NFE) seems blessing to meet this challenge of poverty alleviation.
- ItemOpen AccessWomen Empowerment Through Distance Education in Pakistan(2013-11) Jumani, Nabi B; Safdar, Muhammad; Bhatti, Abdul J; Ghazi, Shakeel AIn a global gender gap survey of 134 countries, Pakistan is placed at 132 –down from 127 in 2008- behind Ghana and Ethiopia at 81 and122 respectively. Similarly, in tertiary education Pakistan is ranked at 99 even behind Namibia at 97. Main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of AIOU in engendering female disparity in higher education in Pakistan. Factors affecting female access to higher education were also assessed in this study. The study was conducted in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Sargodha regions. Survey approach was considered appropriate for data collection. 1000 female students, 100 tutors, 50 parents and 25 academicians were selected randomly and data collected through a questionnaire were analyzed through SPSS XVI. The reports of Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (MoE), Government of Pakistan (GoP), World Bank, UNDP, UNESCO and World Economic Forum were also analyzed. The collected data were analyzed through quantitative and qualitative approaches as well. // The study revealed that after the inception of HEC there was significant growth in higher education enrolment which approached to 316278 in 2008 from 135123 in 2002 with 168% increase and 17.9% average annual growth rate (excluding Distance Education). Out of 316278 male students were 170252 (53.83%) while 146026 (46.17%) were female students. Interestingly, 1170379 was student enrolment only in AIOU in 2011 with 508423 (43.44%) male and 661956 (56.56%) female students that was more than total students of all Pakistani universities. It was found that AIOU alone has provided access to more students than all of the Pakistani universities. Similarly, AIOU has demoted female disparity by enrolling more female students than male learners. AIOU is playing discriminative role in promoting access and engendering female disparity in higher education in Pakistan. Further, regarding female access to higher education, poverty, restricted culture, insecurity, marriage, unimportance of education, negative attitude of parents and unawareness about distance education system were found major problems. Hence, an incentive package for female students may be launched countrywide especially for culturally restricted female learners of remote areas. Appointment of female tutors may be encouraged. A media campaign for awareness and importance of distance and lifelong education may be launched through electronic and the print media. // Paper ID: 290