Browsing 06. Pan-Commonwealth Forum 6 (PCF6), 2010 by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessCommunity Development: Access & Success in Learning: Global Development Perspectives(2010) Ali, AnuwarThe 6th Pan Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning Access
- ItemMetadata onlyInvitation to PCF6(2010) Daniel, JohnCommonwealth of Learning's President & CEO, Sir John Daniel, provides this invitation to attend COL's Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning, November 2010. Duration: 01:57.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 6th Pan Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning Access: Access & Success in Learning: Global Development Perspectives(2010) Tharoor, Shashi; Seelig, Caroline; Maharey, Steve; Sinha, Chetna; Kanwar, Asha; Pillai, Rajasekharan; Daniel, John; Ali, AnuwarIncludes: 1. Asa Briggs lecture (Duration: 53:13. Speaker: Dr. Shashi Tharoor) 2.Inaugural Session - The Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (Duration:1:08:38) 3. Dr. Caroline Seelig on Skill Development - The Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (Duration: 40.00) 4. Hon. Steve Maharey on Formal Education - The Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (Duration: 31.40) 5. Ms. Chetna Sinha on Social Justice - Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Leaning (Duration: 24:15) 6. Anuwar Ali - Community Development - Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Leaning (Duration: 39:26 - Keynote Speaker - Prof. Emeritus Tan Sri Anuwar Ali) 7. Valedictory Session - PCF 6 (Duration: 31:47. Concluding Remarks by: Sir John Daniel (President & CEO, Commonwealth of Learning), Prof. V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai(V.C., IGNOU), Prof. Asha Kanwar (Vice-President, Commonwealth of Learning)) 8. Valedictory Session - The Sixth Pan - Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning ( Duration: 56:31) 9.Cultural Program - The Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (Duration: 50:03) 10. Dr. Shashi Tharoor MP - The Sixth Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (Duration: 37:18)
- ItemOpen AccessQuality Indicators of Successful Distance Learning by Educational Leaders: A Caribbean Case Study(2010-09) Bartley-Bryan, JeanetteWhile new methods and advanced technologies for delivering educational content have rapidly evolved over the past three decades, there remain questions regarding the quality of delivery and nature of the learning outcomes. Many educational theorists and practitioners, acknowledge the deficiencies of the traditional system, while arguing that these emerging methods bring new and different teaching-learning challenges, requiring rigorous evaluation and monitoring, especially in the context of technology-mediated delivery systems for Open and Distance Learning (ODL). One inevitable question “Is open and distance learning as good as traditional face-to-face learning?” This query gives rise to an increasing demand for external evidence to establish confidence among all stakeholders that there are appropriately planned and systematic activities, policies and procedures to ensure that the ODL products or services will perform and satisfy the given requirements for quality assurance. // By definition, an effective distance learning system requires a totally integrated approach in terms of the official organizational framework and arrangements, including quality assurance systems for providing instruction, through print or electronic media, to persons engaged in planned learning, usually for accreditation, in a place and/or time different from that of the instructor (Adapted from Commonwealth of Learning Resources Publications (n.d). Some ODL proponents argue that if the same rigorous quality assessment measures were applied to more traditional modes of learning, one would discover that many current face-to-face practices are not of acceptable quality standards. In this context, Ragan (1999) posits that ‘good teaching is good teaching’ and that effective learning results from the implementation of certain essential conditions, regardless of the mode of delivery. These essential conditions will be discussed in relation to the emerging quality learning indicators, which were demonstrated in the Caribbean case study.
- ItemOpen AccessEkalavyaism: Harness Neglected Skills to Build Talented Resource Pool(2010-11) Basu, AmitavaSustainable end to world poverty as well as the path to peace and security requires that citizens of every country are empowered to make positive choices and provide for themselves and their families. Also, absence of opportunity to access education at an affordable cost withers away talents, and leads to loss of skilled human resource pool. Increasing the pool of literate people is essential to harness the poor, underprivileged and neglected masses; and to attain inclusive growth.
- ItemOpen AccessEntrepreneurship Training in the Apparel and Fashion Design Sector through Distance Mode: A Strategy for Facing the Challenge of Growing Unemployment in India(2010-11) Rao, Veena; Joshi, H GCommunity Development 2.1 // Globally, the micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are considered the engine of economic growth and, MSEs constitute over 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies. MSEs have the highest rates of employment growth that too at low capital cost. Research studies on small firms and entrepreneurship (Thurick, 1994; Reyonlds et al. 2001, 2002; Gorman et al. 1997; Bruyat and Julien, 2000, Heinonen, J. et al; Sunter, 1994) and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (Reynolds et al., 2001) emphasize that the small firms are the real driving force behind economic growth and creation of millions of jobs. An entrepreneur through an enterprise generates conditions for: a. increasing opportunities for employment (comprising various competitive skill sets); b. additional wealth creation; c. introduction and dissemination of new methods and technology; and d. overall economic growth (http://www.knowledgecommission.gov.in/downloads/documents/NKC_Entrepreneurship.pdf). The definition of entrepreneur as a person who earns money using the available resources so as to cater to his or her financial needs while also creating opportunities for other people to get employed highlights the relation of entrepreneurship with that of economic development and the reduction of unemployment (http://www.brighthub.com/office/entrepreneurs/articles/40916.aspx) // Keeping in view the importance of the MSEs for the economic growth and employment generation, it is proposed to discuss the strategy for entrepreneurial training in fashion and apparel design.
- ItemOpen AccessContextual Background to supporting Learning in the Digital Age: A comparative Study of Botswana and Lesotho(2010-11) Kolosoa, Lineo C; Sebopelo, PhineasThe government of Botswana in line with its Vision 2016, the National Development Plans – NDP-8 and NDP-9, developed a National ICT Policy which envisioned to position Botswana for sustainable growth in the digital age by serving as a key catalyst in achieving social, economic, political and cultural transformation within the country (Botswana National Information and Communications Policy V 2005, 8) A formal assessment on the current state of e-learning in Botswana preceded the introduction of the policy as it enabled the authorities to be in a position to determine the level of effort required to introduce this very important development. The results of the benchmarking and ereadiness assessments indicate that Botswana has a good infrastructure and supporting legislation in place, which provides the country with a solid foundation for accelerating an integrated National ICT agenda. (Botswana National Information and Communications Policy V 2005, 10) // In November 2007, the Tertiary Education Council facilitated a workshop the resultant of which was an intergraded tertiary education plan for the period 2009-2015. This white paper adopted a holistic view of how the tertiary education sector will deliver benefits by amongst others “the establishment of a sector wide tertiary education e-learning system that can be accessed by all the tertiary education institutions”. (Tertiary Education Council, formulating the NDP10 plan consultation paper, January 2008, 13) // Botswana College of Distance and Open learning (BOCODOL) has, ever since its inception had technology as one of the issues that were top on its agenda. For instance in the BOCODOL Strategic Business Plan 2000-2003, Planning for Progress and Excellence in Distance Education, the MultiMedia and ICT Department was mandated to support the introduction and strengthening of the ICT development through the review and development of the ICT strategy. In the strategic plan of 2003-2006, the College adopted the efficient and effective application of technology as one of the key result areas. The idea behind this was to harness technology for efficient and effective development and delivery of quality products and services. // As part of its strategic goals, BOCODOL is currently working towards developing ODL and ICT expertise, in order to progressively increase College bandwidth to facilitate delivery of on-line programmes and services. This is done to ensure that the College is in a position to respond more effectively to the needs of its learners in these matters. // Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning embraces the e-learning initiative not for its strategic growth in increasing access but also to position itself in a global market by reaching out far away learners. The effect of this would be to expand the market base and also inadvertently improve on quality of the service due to the external scrutiny the product will be subjected to internationally. // As part of ministry of Education and Training’s stress on practical programmes and the desire to bridge the ‘digital divide’ and achieve its strategic goal 1 of improving access and equity of education and training at all levels by 2015, the Kingdom of Lesotho intends to develop sufficient, skilled and motivated human resource for the education and training system through the use of ICT and implementation of ICT programmes for all institutions of learning. This will be done through increased utilisation of ICT in teaching and learning and the use of ICT as an important tool for expanding the learning environment (ESSP, 2005). According to the Education Sector Strategic Plan (2005), the government of Lesotho is aware of the existing knowledge or information gaps between itself and the advance world as a development impediment that needs to be addressed. // Lesotho College of Education in line with the ESSP (2005) recognises technology based learning and in its Strategic Plan (2006/7) clearly articulates the integration of technology in the teaching and learning of College programmes, the use of ICT to support learners through e-learning streamline administration and enhancement of communication skills development among staff and learners.
- ItemOpen AccessGlobal Agricultural Knowledge Initiative: Strengthening the Global Competence of Students, Faculty and Extension Agents(2010-11) Holz-Clause, Mary; Dileepkumar, GuntukuEducation and Training traditionally involve learning from teachers and other pedagogical standards. The role of the teacher is to impart knowledge to those who do not possess them. Teachers talk in front of the class, and the pupils have to listen and write down what the “knowing” teacher says. This top-down method is not only used in the formal education system, also training staff uses this method to train the people. Even though this way of teaching and learning is part of our culture, the changing scenarios and expectation of today’s learners demand that teachers adapt new ways to update their skills and knowledge for making information and knowledge available to farmers. // Advent of Internet and advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and specifically in Multimedia, Networking, and Software Engineering have promoted the enormous amount of learning resources and Learning Management Systems (LMSs). During the last years, thousands of electronic texts, images, movies, or Java applet based learning resources have been developed for learning purposes in Internet environments. To take advantage of this situation, new services were developed for creating synchronous (Chat, Flash meetings, Breeze meeting, Teleconferencing and Video Conferencing to name a few) and asynchronous (Internet education portals, web based learning management systems, Forums, and wiki’s to name a few) learning environments. With the help of these contemporary Information and Communication Technology based services, the search, classification, organization, and peer-to-peer exchange of learning resources by learners, instructors, and course developers are becoming commonplace. However most of these technologies and virtual knowledge networks are part of corporate knowledge management. Academia has yet to recognize and fully explore the significance of systematic network development tools for agricultural education purposes. A dynamic computer-based model of knowledge management can now be applied to agricultural research done at any university anywhere on the globe and this research can be exchanged in a matter of seconds among faculty scientists, private industry, and students.
- ItemOpen AccessMapping Open Educational Resources for Access and Equity in Higher Education in India(2010-11) Gani, AbdulThis paper maps the scale and scope of Open Educational Resources initiatives and examines how well the development of OER address the core concern of providing wider access to quality higher education at an affordable cost. The paper also identifies the factors that help or hinder the drive to improve accessibility to OER and outlines a strategy to make effective use of OER for promoting access, equity and excellence in higher education in Indian.
- ItemOpen AccessRegional Cooperation among Open Universities: a Case of South Asia(2010-11) Rajesh, MThere is perhaps no region in the world that can boast of an antiquity rivaling that of South Asia. When man in distant reaches of the world was still occupied with concerns of bare survival from Human and Environmental challenges, South Asia was grappling with the issues concerning the mind and the intellect. However, times changed and South Asia that once was testimonial to the towering heights of intellectual achievements became self content and over confident with regards to its own achievements and shut its eyes to the outside world. Exploration of mysteries and travelling to the outside world became uncommon. Considerations related to the differences among humans based on birth became the source discrimination in the attainment of education and cultivation of the faculties of the mind. Thus South Asia that was once the hub of world intellect and production became one of the weakest performers on this front. // Southern Asia is also a region (as we will see shortly) which requires a robust Open Education System in place due to emergent socio-economic realities. The strength and vibrancy of the Open and Distance mode institutions will determine how quickly the region moves out of the specter of backwardness enveloping the region.
- ItemOpen AccessLearner Support Services in Open and Distance Learning: Issues and Evidences from the State of Assam(2010-11) Sarmah, Bhaskar; Das, KandarpaDistance education in its organized form, is one of the path breaking innovations in the field of education of the Twentieth century. The period between “1960-1985” has witnessed remarkable growth of distance education all around the world (The International Scene -1, 2001). In our country as well, correspondence education started in as early as 1960s. However, with the establishment of the B.R. Ambedkar State Open University in 1982 and the IGNOU in 1985, distance education has emerged as a distinct educational system. In fact, governments in all around the world and in the developing countries in particular today have accepted ODL (Open and Distance Learning) as a legitimate means of meeting educational goals. For example, Government of India (GOI) in its Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) aimed for wide expansion of the ODL institutions with an aim to enroll 40% of all tertiary students in such institutions by 2007. The governments of Namibia and Ghana declared their national policy to be of dual mode instruction. Similarly, national open universities have been established in other SouthAsian countries viz. Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, and Bangladesh to meet respective national policy objectives (Raza, 2008).
- ItemOpen AccessRole of Allama Iqbal Open University in Promoting Access and Demoting Gender Disparity in Higher Education in Pakistan(2010-11) Safdar, Muhammad; Hussain, Irshad; Hafeez, AmtulHigher education has emerged as a key factor for socio-economic development in the recent decades. Amazingly, more persons are attending colleges and universities in this century than in all of the human history (Goodman, 1999) and it is rightly argued by Manuel Castells, if knowledge and information are electricity of the new world economy, universities are one of the power sources on which the development process of 21st century has to rely. (Altbach, 1999) About 64 years ago Quaid-i-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Father of the Nation) has expressed the importance of higher education in these words, “Of all the economic growth initiatives available to the Government of Pakistan, perhaps none holds more promise and the possibility of large scale and sustainable returns than the effectiveness and expansion of the Higher Education infrastructure in Pakistan”. (GoP, 2009) Unfortunately, despite of these golden words of our hero at the advent of this millennium the total number of students in higher education was about 2.6% for the age group of 17-23 which was very low and Pakistan ranked amongst the worst in the world in higher education enrolment ratios, as compared to China (13%), Malaysia (26%), Thailand (39%) and Korea (83%). (HEC MTDF, 2005-2010) // Before the inception of Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, the total number of students in Pakistan’s higher education system was approximately 475,000. Of these students, only 139,000 have attended universities-representing a less than 0.8% enrollment ratio for higher education, i.e. fewer than 8 of every 1000 Pakistanis between the ages of 17 and 23 have attended university. Enhancing accessibility and participation in higher education is an important goal of Higher Education Commission. (HEC, 2008) Soon after the establishment of HEC this ratio increased drastically and it approached to 5%. HEC aimed to continue this progress to 10% by 2015 and subsequently to 15% by 2020. (HEC MTDF, 2005-2010)
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing the need for a quality framework designed specifically for managing the provision of online distance education in developing countries(2010-11) Inglis, AlistairQuality assurance and quality improvement processes employ quality frameworks to ensure comprehensive coverage of the factors affecting students’ experiences of learning. The importance of quality frameworks has increased with the shift to online delivery of courses. // A number of quality frameworks for use in quality management in relation to delivery of courses online at a distance may be found in the educational literature. However, most of these frameworks have been designed for use in a developed country context. Such frameworks may not be suitable for use in a developing country context where factors such as the robustness of the communications infrastructure, capacity of teachers to use technology, students’ access to technology, the affordability of technology, and a range of other factors can have a much greater impact on students’ learning experiences. // Designing a new quality framework for use specifically in a developing country context is a substantial project. Before embarking on such an enterprise one needs to be satisfied that existing frameworks are unsuitable for the task and that adapting an existing framework would not offer a most cost-effective solution than moving on to the development of a new framework. // This paper draws on the research literature to identify the range of known challenges faced in delivering programs by online distance education in a developing country context. It then examines the extent to which a number of existing quality frameworks capture information on institutional performance in relation to these challenges. Finally, it considers whether a case can be made for development of a new quality framework specifically designed for use in a developing country context.
- ItemOpen AccessCan Open and Distance Education bring Social Justice to the Weaker Sections of the Society: A Case Study on Directorate of Distance Education, University of North Bengal, West Bengal, India(2010-11) YasminEducation, among all the forces and factors that influence in provisioning social justice, emerges strong as it creates social awareness that further leads to the realization by the individual for greater opportunities in social life. Open and Distance Learning (ODL), which is a non contiguous form of study, affords a learner the flexibility of study, independent of time and space (Jegede, Barry & Fisher 1995). By virtue of this intrinsic characteristics, ODL has immense potential that can be harnessed to promote higher education by first lowering social, cultural, perceptual and economic barriers and then leveraging the incremental quantum of educated individuals to foster socio-economic growth. Having ensured easy access to higher education and creating equitable opportunities for provision and recognition of lifelong learning, ODL can further contribute significantly to social justice through capacity building that would add considerably towards poverty alleviation and sustainable development. As participants of ODL programs are usually individuals who are motivated to enrich themselves, their knowledge and skills can be further harnessed for sustainable development of the societies, which otherwise would not have been possible in a formal, regular learning framework. The National Policy on Education (GOI 1986) places a special thrust on Distance Education by prioritizing life-long education as a cherished goal of the educational process.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring the Introduction of Certificate Program in Microfinance through ODL: A Study(2010-11) Chandraiah, EsampallyPoverty poses a major threat to the development, particularly in India. In view of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing extreme poverty and hunger by half by 2015 (IIBF (2009), the microfinance education through open distance learning (ODL) assumes importance in alleviation of poverty. Education is considered to be an effective approach and single powerful weapon against poverty. It widens the financial services delivery system by linking the large number of rural population, particularly people living in Below Poverty Line (BPL), with formal financial institutions through Self-Help Groups. However, there was an absence of microfinance education to explore possibilities of setting up specialized small business activities or social enterprises to develop the rural economy. Therefore, microfinance education and skill-building of rural poor through Open Distance Education and Learning (ODEL) are big challenges to alleviate poverty. // Broadly this paper intends to provide a greater understanding of the role played by microfinance in general and Self-Help Groups in particular in Andhra Pradesh. Further, it intends to analyze the needs assessment of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) to offer a “Certificate / Diploma program in Microfinance” through Open Distance Education and Learning (ODEL) system at Dr.B.R.Ambedkar Open University, India.
- ItemOpen AccessThe accessibility of ODL to the disadvantaged-teenage employees(2010-11) Khanyane, Marethabile MMost importantly, distance learning provides opportunity to those teenage employees, who could not continue with their education for various reasons. These include loosing parents due to HIV/AIDS, and having no one to take care of; parents being too poor due to being unemployed and therefore not having money to pay for their children for higher education. Some children do not perform well at primary school and therefore do not meet the minimum entry requirements for post-primary education. // In most cases, teenagers who end up not going further with education, due to various reasons mentioned above, go on to find employment, either as domestic workers, gardeners, herd boys, shopkeepers or labourers.
- ItemOpen AccessThe use of information technologies to expedite information flow between Open and Distance Learning (ODL) learners and their educational providers(2010-11) Goitsemang, L; Bahuma, JThis is a study in the use of information technology, specifically the use of BULK Text messaging (SMS) service as a way of improving and expanding service delivery to the Open and Distance learning (ODL) learner. The paper seeks to explore the degree to which communication with learners by SMS can expand and strengthen learner support services to ODL learners thus reducing isolation and at the same time keeping the learners informed. Expansion of Academic Programmes at Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning has posed various limitations on resources such as inadequacies of space for tutorials, unavailability of tutors at some learning centres, inadequacy of coordinators to run these programmes. This has in turn forced the college to retrospect on its communication methods and move more towards those methods that can reduce the symptoms of isolation from distance learners and one of the methods that the college has recently adopted with success in this area is the SMS. This paper therefore seeks to establish that indeed SMS is one mode of communication that ODL practitioners should consider for their learners as it is an effective way of communication.
- ItemOpen AccessQuality Issues in Secondary School Education in Sri Lanka(2010-11) Gunawardena, ChandraThe National Education Commission (NEC), Sri Lanka in 1997 included compulsory education regulations for the 5–14 age group and proposals for the establishment of a well-equipped quality school in each of the 324 local administrative divisions to ensure an equitable distribution of educational opportunities. The Commission’s Proposals in 2003 also had as its priority, equity in the provision of quality education. Even though new types of schools have been established under different names and efforts made to improve teacher development, school infrastructure and develop a relevant curriculum, the goal of ‘excellence’ appears to be still elusive. // Among the quality issues highlighted consistently are shortcomings in curriculum and teachinglearning, which lead to examination domination, rote learning, and children being ill-equipped to face demands of life and the world of work or the opportunity to develop creativity. // The National Institute of Education in 2007 introduced a competency-based curriculum at junior secondary education level to improve the quality of education especially to cater to societal demands for a well-rounded education.The paper will present the findings of an evaluation to identify strengths of the reformed curriculum and perceived deficiencies in identification of levels of competencies, and thereby, deficiencies persisting in curriculum development.
- ItemOpen AccessSkill Development and Training On the Use of Logging Residues and Discarded Oil Palm Trunk as Raw Material for the Downstream Wood Processing Sector(2010-11) Okai, ReynoldsIn Ghana, majority of the rural folk depend on chain sawing activities for livelihood. Chain sawing is, however, characterized by degradation of the forest and therefore the government has put a ban on the production of lumber through chain sawing. This action has really affected the livelihood of people living along the fringes of the forest since they depend mostly on chain sawing activities to take care of their families. The ban on chain sawing activities by the government has led to migration of some of the youth from the rural areas to the urban areas to search for jobs which do not exist. Some of the youth get frustrated because of the lack of jobs in the urban areas and resort to some form of social vices. The youth in the rural areas could be gainfully employed if they are assisted to convert into lumber, and in an efficient manner, the large volumes of logging residues that are left in the forest in the form of branches, buttresses and stumps. // Another area that is worth mentioning and needs to be addressed urgently to help halt the degradation of the forest is the large volume of oil palm trunks that are left in the forest to rot after tapping the wine in the trees. Thus, enormous quantities of palm trees are discarded in vain, while destruction of the rain forest has been expanding in the same tropical areas by excess cutting of trees. People living along the fringes of the forest could also be gainfully employed if they are assisted to convert the oil palm trunks into lumber using appropriate processing technology. Skill development and training on the use of logging residues and discarded oil palm trunk as raw material for the downstream wood processing sector is a promising venture to promote Technical and Vocational Education and Training.
- ItemOpen AccessPedagogical Designs for Generation of Contents for the Community(2010-11) Saxena, AnuragWhen one talks about growth of technology applications in education, one normally asks a question: we are moving towards what? Probably the appropriate answer is, towards a convergence point of technologies & what is that? The answer is, towards a Virtual Reality i.e. a "virtual classroom" & what is a virtual classroom? The answer is, where the distance between the teacher and the taught is nil. And finally, how one can make the distance nil? The answer is by generating good e-contents and by making them available to all those who wish to learn. E-contents are basically a package that satisfies the conditions like i.e. minimization of the distance, cost effectiveness, user-friendliness and adaptability to local conditions. As per www.answers.com, we can define e-content as follows // E-content: digital content that can be transmitted over a computer network such as the Internet. // Digital content: Products available in digital form. It typically refers to music, information and images that are available for download or distribution on electronic media. // According to Webster dictionary, "pedagogy" refers to the whole context of instruction, learning, and the actual operations involved therein. So our task in this section would be to define how to develop strategies so that the e-content that we offer our students come good with respect to the context of instruction as well as learning. It would also entail the operations i.e. the accessibility, acceptability and user-friendliness of these contents. In this section, we discuss various pedagogies involved in generation of e-content. We have further talked about various types of educational contents that are suitable for treatment as e-content.