Browsing 05. Conference Proceedings & Working Papers by Region "Pacific"
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- ItemOpen AccessA Changing Role for Teachers On-Line: A Case Study in Higher Education in Australia(1999-03) Postle, Glen; Ellerton, NeridaPCF1 // Over the past two years, the Faculty of Education at the University of Southern Queensland (USQ), in conjunction with the University’s Distance Education Centre, has offered a Graduate Certificate in Open and Distance Learning. This course is taught fully via the World Wide Web (WWW), with all content presentation, teacher-learner and learner-learner interactions, assignment submissions and feedback being done on-line and via email. This Graduate Certificate has now been further developed into a Masters Degree program which will be offered solely on-line. // Both programs require of students and staff a different level of interactivity from what has been the pattern in on-campus programs and traditional distance education programs previously delivered via print and other media. // This paper examines the nature of these differences and explores the complexity of the task of teaching on-line. //
- ItemOpen AccessA Multi-sense Approach to Information Reception and Knowledge Creation in Learning(2004-07) Nooriafshar, MehryarPCF3 // For thousands of years, human beings have acquired and processed information using a number of different senses. Hence, the use of different senses for information collection, analysis and remembering is something, which our brain can relate to very well. // The process of converting the information into knowledge, referencing and utilizing it, is carried out within the personal mind-based multimedia system of the human brain. The human mind can create the most sophisticated animations and multimedia as it can select different types of thought-based “audio” and “visual” effects as well as “actors”. In other words, the human mind has access to an unlimited amount of resources for designing the thought-based multimedia systems. Unfortunately, we are not able to transfer the information and knowledge in our mind directly to other people and sources. This may become possible in the future. // This paper explores the use of innovative and technology aided teaching methods, which utilize different modes and senses for the purpose of learning enhancement. Finally, it compares the learning outcomes and preferences of a sample of internationally selected students using a multimedia system, which attempts to cross the communication barriers in learning.
- ItemOpen AccessA Multimodal Education Response to the Resilience Challenge in Tonga(2022-09) Steen, Tangikina Moimoi; Katoanga, Tomote; Tauga, Matelita; Kaitapu, Soana; Ma'u, Taisia; Reid, IanPCF10 Sub-theme: Building Resilience // Tonga is a small island nation in the Pacific. While it has been COVID free, it is susceptible to many natural disasters, such as the recent Tsunami and earthquake. Resilience is a fundamental requirement of the Tongan education system which has been partially addressed with accelerated use of technology and open, distance, and online learning, broadening access to quality education. // Supported by a grant from the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), the Tonga Ministry of Education and Training (MET) partnered with Inclusiv Education, UNICEF, Save the Children Australia, and Kaltura. The MET took an evidence-based approach. Two National school closure days were trialled to evaluate the viability of multimodal teaching approaches during future school closures brought about by Covid-19 or other emergencies. // In this way Tonga has now started to build a resilient education system, addressing issues of learning loss due to school closures and increasing equitable access to technology for teaching and learning. // This paper reports on the National level educational resilience project implemented in 2021, based on the research carried out in 2020, to deliver a comprehensive multimodal and flexible approach to education, encompassing print, radio, television and online delivery. // Key learnings and future plans are also discussed. // Paper ID 8738
- ItemOpen AccessA Strategy for Reaching Students and Increasing their Motivation(2004-07) Kovacic, Zlatko J; Green, John StevenPCF3 // Recently, New Zealand government policy has placed a renewed emphasis on students completing courses, by changing the way tertiary institutions are funded. This has resulted in increased importance being placed on this aspect in the administration and teaching of the courses. According to Seidman’s retention formula for student success, early and regular tutor contact makes a significant difference in keeping students motivated and bringing them to the classroom. Nowadays communication technology by itself is not a guarantee of a successful learning experience. It is the way we use this technology, the timing of interactions and an optimal mixture of online tools that makes an impact on student persistence and retention. In this paper we are addressing these issues and providing data to show how effective our approach was.
- ItemOpen AccessAccess to ICT Infrastructure and Devices in the South Pacific(2022-09) Naidu, Som; Bhartu, Dhiraj; Mays, TonyPCF10 Sub-theme: Inspiring Innovations // The South Pacific region spreads over more than 30 million square kilometres of the Pacific Ocean. The region comprises more than a dozen island nations ranging from small volcanic islands to even smaller coral atolls. Population masses in the island nations vary from around 2,000 in Tokelau to a little more than 800,000 in the Republic of Fiji. Access to information and communications technologies and internet connectivity in the region is varied. This project involves the design and conduct of a desktop study into access to ICT infrastructure, connectivity and devices and their use by students and teachers in the Pacific. Outcomes of this study will enable COL to make informed decisions about what access and delivery technologies to employ in the Partnership for Open Distance and Flexible Learning project in the Pacific. The study will address issues of access to hardware, software, connectivity and skills, as well as examples of ways in which teachers, institutions or Ministries have found ways to address the challenges in low bandwidth/limited access environments, especially in the nine developing countries of the Commonwealth in the region. // Paper ID 3503
- ItemOpen AccessAccessing Global Information: Locating the Right Information in an Information Abundant Society(1999-03) Gehling, Joanna; Booker, DiPCF1 // Working paper presented by Joanna Gehling and Di Booker at the First Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF1) in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. //
- ItemOpen AccessAn Alternative Pathway for Open Learning and Skills Training through Distance Education in Papua New Guinea(2006-10) Paul, JohnPCF4 // National Education Department recognizes that there is a natural consensus to make education a life long need for all citizens, distance education has both opportunities and challenges to cater for traditional learners for education qualifications, professionals to upgrade knowledge and skills to the communities to acquire skills and knowledge and information. // This paper provides a unique platform for sharing and exchanging ideas in perspective of Open and Distance Learning in relation to national development needs, institutional capacities, collaboration and sharing resources, globalization and ICT enabled education and more profoundly to quality of program delivery. // Paper ID 431
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysing the development of institutional policies for sustainability and quality of OERs with a focus on the Australian context(2010-11) Bossu, CarinaStimulated by funding from benefactors such as the Hewlett Foundation and UNESCO, the OER movement has been growing rapidly since 2001, providing educational content freely to institutions and learners across the world through the Internet. Many organizations perceive benefits both for themselves and for learners elsewhere in distributing their learning resources in this way. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) OpenCourseWare initiative (OCW), set up in 2001, makes content available freely from most of MIT’s courses and has provided the inspiration for many similar institutional projects. When the MIT OCW site was officially launched the following year, over 500 courses were available. By 2004 there were 900, and the total reached 1250 in 2005. Even more impressive were visitor numbers. By 2005, MIT’s OCW site had received more than 8.5 million visits, and visitors were growing by 56% per annum (MIT 2006). Equally significant was the speed with which the MIT OCW site demonstrated its value to the institution. In 2006, it was reported that 35% of new MIT students had based their choice of institution, in whole or in part, on their exposure to the MIT OCW site. It was also reported that 71% of MIT students using the OCW site found its content helpful or extremely helpful in their studies (MIT 2006). As expected, the MIT OCW project provided a model for other universities worldwide and saw the establishment of the OpenCourseWare Consortium (OCWC). Currently, the OCWC has over two hundred institutional members worldwide (OCW 2008). // By the end of 2006, there were signs that the OER movement had reached maturity. An important sign were developments in Europe, where alternatives to the MIT model emerged. One of these was OpenLearn, launched by the Open University (OU) in October 2006, which was intended to publish the widest possible selection of OU course materials. It was also intended to do much more: its explicit goal was to engage and support self-directed learners using the latest Web 2.0 technologies. The site would not only host user-generated content (material created by individuals and organisations outside the higher education sector), it would also provide social networking tools to empower users to build their own learning communities (Shuller 2006). By mid-2007, 560,000 individuals had visited the OpenLearn site. In a single week in June 2007, the site had 8,000 visitors from the UK, 6,000 visitors from the United States and another 4,500 from the rest of the world. More importantly, there were 19,000 registered users (Taylor 2007). By April 2008, over 4,400 OpenLearn users had become fully-fledged Open University students. This represented additional teaching income of ₤2.7 million for the institution (Gourley & Lane 2009). // These initiatives form what is now known as the open educational resource movement, which promotes “the open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes” (UNESCO 2002, p. 24). While the term "open educational resources" was first adopted by UNESCO in 2002, it is in the OECD report, Giving Knowledge for Free (2007, p. 10), that the definition of OER currently most often used stands as “digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research”. This is the definition that will be adopted in this paper, although in the context of being aware of a wider interpretation. // Currently, many universities around the globe have launched OER projects (more than 300 universities). Millions of learners have benefited from learning through OER materials, and many educational institutions, mostly distance education providers, have obtained significant rewards in terms of enhancing their reputations, increasing student enrolment and developing innovative ways to produce distance learning materials (Wiley & Gurrell 2009). Also, OERs have contributed significantly to the proliferation of virtual communities of learning, where students, teachers and experts in their fields can discuss, make contributions and learn with each other through online collaboration (D'Antoni 2008). However, we still have much to learn about the OER movement. It is still grappling with issues such as resistance to giving away information and knowledge for “free”; at no cost and free to use and re-use. Licensing, intellectual propriety and copyright of OERs are also matters that remain ambiguous to educational institutions. In a similar fashion, many questions associated with policy development, sustainability and quality of OERs continue to be unanswered and under researched (D'Antoni 2008). In fact, according to UNESCO (D'Antoni 2008, p. 11), the above concerning matters are listed amongst the 14 priority issues that deserve attention for further development of OERs, with “awareness raising and promotion” being the first priority.
- ItemOpen AccessApplication of Adaptivity in Quiz Systems(2004-07) Kinshuk, Qingmin ChengPCF3 // Web-based assessment has been a major research area in recent years, but none of the efforts have yet been directed towards providing adaptive features (either adaptivity or adaptability) for the learner. ʹAdaptivityʹ requires the system to automatically adapt to the learnersʹ current level of domain competence and other similar attributes, whereas ʹadaptabilityʹ requires the system to provide suitable interfaces by which the user can customise the system according to his/her own preferences. This research explores the potential of adaptivity in the Web-based assessment environments and develops a framework that adapts selection of questions within pre-defined contextual boundaries and tolerances and revises granularity in the presentation of questions at varying degree of complexity. // Based on the framework, an adaptive Web-based quiz system is designed and implemented for a first year course at the Massey University. The system is divided into two areas: exercise area and self assessment area. The system uses a student model to monitor and record each student’s exercise and assessment profile. Based on the individual profile, the system presents to the student the suitable exercises at appropriate level of complexity. For example, if the student selects to take an assessment, the system provides the suitable level of questions to the student, based on his or her profile. When the student submits the answers, the system analyses the results according to the marking rules defined by the quiz designer, and gives proper feedback to the student. The feedback includes the correct answers and next recommended step, e.g. system recommends the student to go to the next level if the student gets the satisfying results. Otherwise, the system recommends the user to either try the exercises again or go to revise the relevant learning material. With this system, students are able to take the individualized assessment, and know their own level of competence and the learning progress. Currently, the system is being used by about 150 students. An evaluation is underway to ascertain the effectiveness of the system. Anecdotal comments from the students at this early stage suggest that the students are finding the system as very useful and helpful.
- ItemOpen AccessApplication of Learning Styles Adaptivity in Mobile Learning Environments(2004-07) Kinshuk, Taiyu LinPCF3 // Availability of advanced mobile technologies, such as high bandwidth infrastructure, wireless technologies, and handheld devices, have started to extend e-learning towards mobile learning (m-learning) (Sharples, 2000). This phenomenon fits well with the new paradigm “anytime, anywhere computing” (Lehner and Nösekabel, 2002). However, the development of m-learning is still at rather early stage and many issues have yet to be resolved. One of these issues is the potential of individualization of learning process for the learners. // This paper explores how to improve learning process by adapting course content presentation to student learning styles in multi-platform environments such as PC and PDA. A framework has been developed to comprehensively model student’s learning styles and present the appropriate subject matter, including the content, format, media type, and so on, to suit individual student. The work is based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Style Theory. The framework uses traditional web-based intelligent tutorial architecture, with two additional components: ‘learning style analysis module’ and ‘access device analysis module’. The learning style analysis module takes care of modeling student learning style and communicates with student model, whereas the access device analysis module identifies the access device profile and provides the information to tutorial module. The tutorial module creates the suitable content, based on the student model (including individual learning styles) and access device profile, and presents to the student. // Based on the framework, a prototype for the domain of PHP programming course has been developed. With this system, students are able to learning PHP programming with course content that matches their own learning style and the device used to access the content. A formative evaluation is planned to assess the student satisfaction, learning efficiency, and effectiveness of the system while providing various presentations of the same content to different users on different devices.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing Freshman ICT Literacy- A Case Study of UPNG Open College(2019-09) Erapae, Tuai
- ItemOpen AccessAt-Risk Students: An Early Intervention System(2022-09) Chand, Rajni; Anzeg, Afshana; Narayan, SharishnaPCF10 Sub-theme: Inspiring Innovations // During the Covid-19 lockdown, the University of the South Pacific (USP) had to close the Face-to-Face (F2F) delivery of lectures, tutorials and Drop-in support services at all its campuses. This included closing the Drop-in sessions at Student Learning Support (SLS) that provide additional literacy, numeracy and remedial support for students studying at USP. Given that all courses changed to online mode, contact with students was only possible using online virtual sessions such as Big Blue Button (BBB) or Zoom. Such sessions were only possible for students who had facilities and resources and could afford to study online. With Internet cafes and USP's Outreach Hubs, computer labs, and libraries closed, it further limited facilities for studying online for many. Realising major accessibility issues for the majority of its students, particularly those who needed support the most, USP formed a working group of SLS, First-Year Experience (FYEC) Coordinators, Information Technology Services (ITS), and Student Administrative Services (SAS) to design a strategy to identify and support the At-Risk Students (ARS). Moodle, the Learning Management System (LMS) used at USP, which records all students' activities became the central platform for this intervention. With SLS and FYE access to student activity and logs across the different schools at USP, the team worked on the design and implementation of an intervention system to help students isolated due to COVID-19 lockdowns. Intervention systems have been successfully used at many universities (Carroll, 2007; Burmack, 2002; Riddle, 2009; Frey & Fisher, 2008; Trilling & Fadel, 2009; Zhang, Fei, Quddau and Davis, 2014), showing a reduction in dropout and a better pass rate. The approach used at USP involved creating regular contact with the ARS studying in isolation or lockdown, supporting them through internet data plans for studying and virtual academic support sessions. The results showed an increase in these students' Moodle activity and better performance in the courses they were enrolled in. This paper discusses the planning, strategies, and results from a primary survey conducted on these ARS' performances. // Paper ID 1292
- ItemOpen AccessBalancing the Demands of Knowledge and Technology in an Open Learning Delivery Computer Assisted Learning Course in Australia(1999-03) Prescott, David Lochmohr; Prescott, SimPCF1 // Working paper presented by David Lochmohr Prescott and Sim Prescott at the First Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF1) in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. //
- ItemOpen AccessBlended Education Framework for All: Bridging Developing and Developed Country Education Ecosystems(2022-09) Aktaruzzaman, Md; Chowdhury, AnitPCF10 Sub-theme: Promoting Equity and Inclusion // Blended education theorists and practitioners have argued about the requirement for a framework to be comprehensive in a way that can explicate many of the activities by the various actors of the education ecosystem – learners, teachers, communities, eduverses, institutions, administration – associated with blended education in both developing and developed countries. Currently, Community of Inquiry (CoI), Complex Adaptive Blended Learning System (CABLS), and Khan’s Octagonal eLearning Model are the most prominent frameworks, yet they still do not offer an all-inclusive framework for blended education that can facilitate implementation from theory in different socio-economic echelons and educational strata. This paper provides a review of the existing literature on blended learning and identifies potential gaps in going from theory to implementation. Building on Chowdhury’s (2021) work at the World Economic Forum, a Blended Education Framework for All (BEFA) is proposed as a means to explicate blended education operations and practices at the individual, community, institutional and national levels, leaving no one behind. It also presents evidence of the necessity of a comprehensive framework such as the BEFA from a larger study conducted into the blended education ecosystem of Bangladesh and Australia. // Paper ID 9103
- ItemOpen AccessBreaking Borders with the VIP Project(2008-09) Martini, Nataly; Bennett, RickPCF5 Sub-theme: Health // The Creative Waves 2007 - Visualising Issues in Pharmacy (VIP) project was the first fully online initiative designed to join pharmacy and graphic design students and teachers from around the world to raise public awareness of critical health issues identified as debilitating in Kenya, including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. // Using the Omnium Software online platform, the venture collectively linked together over 300 geographically dispersed students, academics, practitioners and special guests across five continents and 35 countries. The project ran over a 14-week period from March-July 2007 and was divided into two distinct phases, where Phase I (pharmacy phase: week 1-7) and Phase II (graphic design phase: week 7-14) overlapped for a week to encourage crossdisciplinary collaboration between the two educationally diverse groups. // This paper will discuss how through continuous discussions with special guests and mentors around the world, pharmacy participants, in particular, shared materials and resources both individually and collectively to produce indepth written reports for the design phase of the project. The final visual design outcomes from Phase II are currently in production to be implemented, however, the practical stage has been concluded with a high degree of socialisation, cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary interaction and appreciation of others situations. // Judging by participant feedback, the VIP project has signaled that the demand for new visions and approaches to learning and teaching is strong and that the technologies we now live with everyday can enable such interaction. Pharmacy participants specifically indicated the desire for more international online projects so that pharmacy could engage in a more active role locally and internationally in improving public health awareness. // Paper ID 689
- ItemOpen AccessBuilding Educational/Academic Resilience through Digital Literacy(2022-09) Sharma, Bibhya; Reddy, PritikaPCF10 Sub-theme: Building Resilience // The ongoing digitization of the education systems has introduced a new pedagogical approach to teaching and learning – Education 4.0 that aligns the fourth industrial revolution. Education 4.0 has improved the effectiveness and efficiency of learning globally. However, the issues and challenges associated with Education 4.0 or technology –enabled technology teaching and learning emerged when the global education system was mandated to technology-enabled learning during the pandemic. Both the educators and the learners were found to lack relevant digital skills to successfully facilitate the learning process. This study introduces the concept of digital literacy, a digital literacy framework and a digital literacy tool that can be used to effectively champion digital literacy skills to both the educators and the learners. The digital literacy tool has been successfully used in the South Pacific to evaluate digital literacy competencies and further improve the digital literacy competencies of the selected sample. As such, the digital literacy tool can be used to improve digital literacy of individuals in the developed and developing economies hence promoting educational resilience for all in the technology-enabled environment. // Paper ID 6338
- ItemOpen AccessBuilding Networks for Mutual Benefit: The Education Network Australia and the Pursuit of Added Value(1999-03) Trask, Jan; Mason, Jon; Dellit, JillianPCF1 // Working paper presented by Jan Trask, Jon Mason, and Jillian Dellit at the First Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF1) in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. //
- ItemOpen AccessBuilding Resilience to Ensure Teaching and Learning Continuity in the 2020 Pandemic Lockdown: A Consideration of Issues Challenges and Strategies at the National University of Samoa(2022-09) Chan Mow, Ioana T; Faleupolu Tevita, SaraiPCF10 Sub-theme: Building Resilience // This paper demonstrates the leveraging of technology to build resilience in educational systems to ensure learning continuity during disruptions due to pandemics or natural disasters. The paper describes how resilience is achieved through the implementation of the National University of Samoa (NUS) Moodle workplan for transitioning to the new normal of online learning when Samoa went into voluntary lockdown, in response to the threat of Covid-19. Previously, NUS conducted most of its courses in face-to-face (F2F) mode with some courses using blended delivery or blended mode of learning. But in early 2020, with the emergence of Covid-19, and the sudden lockdown of the whole country, it was crucial that NUS transition all its courses to online mode and hosted in Moodle, the university’s Learner Management system. Key factors determining the scope of this implementation were: i) access to devices, ii) access to the Internet, iii) sufficient bandwidth to ensure uninterrupted and reasonably fast access to Moodle, iv) sufficient processor power of servers to handle the volume of processing iv) the number of simultaneous users on Moodle, vi) skill level of staff and students to use Moodle. The paper discusses the implementation details of this transitioning to online such as the conversion of courses to digital and uploading to Moodle, training of staff on the use of Moodle, and upgrading infrastructure. Challenges and issues encountered in this implementation which include access, bandwidth and congestion, and learner engagement, are also discussed as well as a set of recommendations to build resilience and ensure teaching and learning continuity in future lockdowns. // Paper ID 9596
- ItemOpen AccessChange Management: How to Really Make Open Learning Work(1999-03) Williams, DennisPCF1 // Working paper presented by Dennis Williams at the First Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF1) in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. //
- ItemOpen AccessCollaborative Research Projects in Creating Distributed Learning Environment in Multicultural Context(2004-07) Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Jorgensen, LonePCF3 // Globalization of education in a true sense cannot be achieved only by establishing accessibility, developing cost effective technologies. We also need to understand the issues underpinning the problem. An innovative approach in overcoming the cultural barriers in reaching wider audience has been discussed in this paper.