Browsing 01. Research & Publications by Region "Asia"
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- ItemOpen AccessAcademic Silver Linings in a Philippine State University Amid the Early Stages of Pandemic Cases(2021-07-20) Toquero, Cathy Mae; Panda, SantoshThe primary role of the academe is knowledge building, however, due to the prevailing digital divide, some institutions of higher learning were not able to offer even Emergency Online Teaching (EOT) for continuous formal education during the early stages of the pandemic. This article highlights diversified ways that a state university from a developing country (Philippines) responded to the crisis to offer assistance towards the social development of the stakeholders amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
- ItemOpen AccessAchieving Community Development through an Agricultural Extension Programme: Technology Dissemination for Mushroom Farmers(2021-07-20) De Silva, Nilantha; Wijeratne, Mahinda; Panda, SantoshMushroom production is a small-scale business unit in rural areas. The Life Long Learning for Farmers (L3F) Programme aims to enhance the socio-economic conditions for them, increasing their access to and use of knowledge and technology. This study evaluates the outcomes of the L3F Programme at the community level. Data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire survey. The sample consisted of 30 L3F farmers. Farmers’ achievement was assessed by the Farmer Performance Index (FPI). Results indicate that mushroom farmers have scaled up their production; have improved their productivity; designed new experiments to minimise the impact of pests and diseases; focused on environmental sustainability and scientific mushroom production; and improved the quality of packaging. The mobile app Bimmal Govi, blended with Information and Communication Technology, helped them to move with the latest technological advancements. The L3F Programme has increased the standards of mushroom production, helping the farmers become promising entrepreneurs.
- ItemOpen AccessAddressing the Learning Needs of Out-of-School Children and Youths through the Expansion of Open Schooling(2020-12) Mays, Tony; Singh, Rajiv KumarAt any one time, about 300 million children of school going age are not in school. Experience indicates that when schooling is disrupted, whether by a pandemic, a natural disaster or other reasons, not all children return to the classroom. In addition, most countries have growing numbers of young people who have not completed schooling, or not well enough to progress, and who find themselves neither in employment nor in further education and training. Open schooling can create learning opportunities for those not in school, those who left school and those who are in school but not learning effectively. // There is no single model for open schooling provision which might offer a complementary or alternative curriculum, or both. However, all models can benefit from greater use of open educational resources; open, distance and flexible methods and open educational practices. In this way it is possible to address issues of access, quality and affordability in a sustainable way. // Addressing the Learning Needs of Out-of-School Children and Youths through the Expansion of Open Schooling makes a case for open schooling to be an integral part of future-looking education systems that will be more resilient to changing contexts and needs. // The nine chapters in Part A of the book explore the need for and nature of open schooling as well as cross-cutting issues related to curriculum, open educational resources, technology enabled learning, monitoring and evaluation, finance, open and distance learning methods and open educational practices, as well as gender and policy. The first four chapters in Part B then explore open schooling practice in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Pacific. In the final chapter, the editors summarise the key issues which policy and practice need to address. // This book offers guidelines and examples that will be of use to teachers, managers, policy-makers and education leaders interested to ensure that the education system meets the needs of all children and youths.
- ItemOpen AccessAgriculture MOOCs: Learnings from Five AgMOOCs(2016) Mishra, GauravIIT Kanpur and the Commonwealth of Learning delivered five agriculture based massive open online courses (MOOCs). This report provides insights on learners’ feedback on the course pedagogy and its relevance, content, convenience and ease of use of the technological medium, and overall perceptions of learners towards the delivered courses.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Off-the-Shelf Mobile App Portfolio for Distance Education(2015) Abeywardena, IshanMobile technology has become a near-necessity in our modern lives, be it professional, personal and social. It is then not surprising to see mobile technology play a key role in how we are educated as well. To this extent, Mobile Learning (mLearning) has gained much significance over the past few years. With the design of new pedagogies and paradigm shifts, mLearning has become a new academic discipline on its own with a focus on the use of bespoke mobile technologies such as purpose built mobile apps to achieve the set learning outcomes. However, the design, development and implementation of such bespoke technologies require a substantial investmentboth monetarily and time wise. Many Distance Education (DE) practitioners would not have this privilege in terms of delivering their courses. In contrast, there are thousands of mobile applications available for free which can be leveraged to deliver a DE course more effectively and efficiently. In this light, this brief paper introduces how these off-the-shelf applications can be systematically incorporated into each stage of the learning process. // The remaining sections of this paper will explore how DE has evolved from paper based, to plastic to virtual; the divide between digital natives and immigrants; the current mobile application landscape; and 95 free off-the-shelf mobile apps for the Android platform which could form a rich portfolio for teaching and learning in DE.
- ItemOpen AccessAsian Leaders in Open and Distance Education(2017-11) Panda, Santosh; Gaskell, AnneThe Asian distance education system is probably the largest in the world. No other continent has seen such a serious policy discourse, as well as determined efforts in its practice, as Asia, since the focus invariably has been democratisation of education, access and equity, cost of education, and socio-cultural and political legitimacy through education as empowerment. Technology, which has taken centre stage in the Asian countries today, was a major consideration for such educational endeavours and could pave the way for successful implementation of earlier correspondence education, followed by distance, online and blended learning. This continent has seen great leaders who have contributed not only to their own system of education but also to the world, especially the Commonwealth. It may not be out of place to note that Asian leaders have risen to become vice president of the COL (G. Ram Reddy), president of COL (Gajaraj Dhanarajan and Asha S. Kanwar), president of ICDE, under whom the ICCE was rechristened as ICDE (Bakhshish Singh), and president of ICDE (Tian Belawati). It has been very difficult to select leaders of distance education as profiled in this article, and the utmost attempt has been made to avoid any subjectivity or personal bias. It has been a challenge to cover the entire spectrum of Asian countries to identify leaders and despite efforts this may not have been very comprehensive due to the enormity of activity and personnel involved in Asian distance education.
- ItemOpen AccessBaseline Study of Technology-Enabled Learning at the National Institute of Education, Maldives(2023-07) Rizwan, Shuhudha; Azeema, FathimathThis report presents the results of a baseline survey conducted at the National Institute of Education (NIE) to assess the institution’s readiness for technology-enabled learning (TEL), with the ultimate goal of creating a TEL policy and implementing it with the assistance of the Commonwealth of Learning. NIE being the mandated body for in-service teacher education, the report summarises the findings and recommendations resulting from a self-evaluation of its technological facilities and policies, and the preparedness of both teacher educators and in-service teachers to utilise technology in the context of teaching and learning at NIE.
- ItemOpen AccessA Baseline Study on Technology-Enabled Learning in the Asian Commonwealth(2015-08)This report presents the findings of a study of technology-enabled learning in Commonwealth Asia to identify the basic mileposts in these countries’ vision and mission regarding ICT in education policies. The study looked into institutional framework and mechanisms of implementing ICT in education initiatives, including donor agencies and their contributions in this field. Online learning was a special area of focus in this study, and this included identifying institutions that offer online courses. Open educational resources (OER) and repositories are important developments in education that enhance learning choices and access to quality learning resources. This study made efforts to document OER policies and repositories in the selected eight countries. The study looked at three different issues related to human resources in ICT in education: the number of students enrolled in ICT and media-related courses as an indicator of future manpower in the field. Access to ICT in education, especially in the teaching–learning process, is dependent upon teachers. Hence, an effort has been made, although with limited success, to figure out the number of teachers needed to be trained in ICT in education.
- ItemOpen AccessBaseline-Endline Report: Reaching the Unreached (RtU) through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan(2018-01) Ferreira, Frances; Cruz, Charisse; Smith, KristinaThis report documents the baseline–endline study by the GIRLS Inspire team’s Reaching the Unreached project to examine the implications of skills training and education for women’s and girls’ empowerment and sustainable livelihoods in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. // It is based on data collected from quarterly reports mirrored against the project outcomes, meeting reports and surveys from March 2016 to March 2017. The quarterly and meeting reports documented the activities undertaken to provide training for unreached women and girls in the selected countries. While the actual training was offered exclusively to women and girls, the reports and surveys also captured the input of men and boys in terms of their participation in various community events and as staff members of the partner organisations.
- ItemOpen AccessBaseline–Endline Report: Preventing Child, Early and Forced Marriage (CEFM) through Open, Distance and Technology- Based Education in Bangladesh, Mozambique, Pakistan and Tanzania(2019-08) Smith, KristinaThis report explores the results of the Baseline-Endline study conducted throughout the project to capture its long-term impacts, and was conceptualised through the Performance Measurement Framework (PMF). Surveys were created to measure changes in attitudes and behaviours from before and after participation in the project among the women and girls, employers, community members and organisational partners. This report unpacks the results of these surveys and draws on supporting qualitative data, drawn from open-ended questions, case studies and partner reports, to highlight changes that occurred during the project.
- ItemOpen AccessBest Practices in Open and Distance Education: Case Studies from Commonwealth Countries(2021) Panigrahi, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, SudarshanThe diversity of population with respect to age, qualifi cations, locality and social and economic status cannot be addressed through a single and traditional mode of education. Secondly, growing need for continuous upgradation of knowledge and skills and technological advances mean that traditional ways of organising education and learning systems need to be augmented with innovative, fl exible and technology-driven methods, so as to universalise education as a fundamental right of all people. It is well accepted that Open and Distance Learning is an indispensable part of mainstream education both in developed and developing countries due to widespread use of web-based multimedia technologies. It has become a powerful force for social and economic development. // During the last two decades, many institutions have undergone profound changes in their organisational structures, governance and modes of operation. ICT has been used in every sphere of institutional and teaching learning activities. Traditional universities are transforming themselves to dual mode universities and providing students with the best possible learning resources. More and more open universities and dual mode institutions are being established across the world.
- ItemOpen AccessBest Practices of Community Radio and Sustainable Development Goals: A Handbook(2021) Vemraju, D RukminiCommunity radios as a third tier of broadcasting in addition to commercial and public radios, cover relatively smaller geographic areas but cater to a wider range of communities of interest. The hyper local and participatory nature of content creation in community radio has great potential to reduce the gap between the content creators and listeners making communities - especially the marginalized and vulnerable – active partners in the development process. Thus, community radios are well suited for providing new and unexplored opportunities for more inclusive sustainable development. In the time of the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, community radio stations (CRS) have once again proved their mettle as sources of timely and dependable information and guidance, increased their listenership, and grown in stature as a valuable community asset. Time and again, the role of community radios has been lauded in making critical public information accessible to people be it about various government provisions that they can benefit from, national campaigns on health, mobilizing people to participate in the democratic process by exercising their right to vote, or providing life and livelihood saving information in times of disasters and natural calamities. That community radios can, and do, play a vital role in engaging people in the development process is no longer in doubt, even if this is in small numbers in pockets of their immediate reach. Hence, community radios can be an integral part of the task force of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – a blueprint for achieving a better and more sustainable future for all socially, economically, and environmentally.
- ItemOpen AccessBlended Learning Policy: Templates for Higher Education Institutions in Commonwealth Asia(2022) Mukhopadhyay, MarmarThis document contains five independent, self-contained modules: Module 1. National Blended Learning Policy Template; Module 2. Institutional Blended Learning Policy Template; Module 3. Blended Course Design Template; Module 4: Blended Unit Design Template; Module 5. Exemplar Blended Unit: Taxonomies of Educational Objectives
- ItemOpen AccessBook Review: Higher Education and Open Distance Learning Trajectory in India: Reflections of an Insider(2018-12) Pulist, S K; Gaskell, AnneThe volume provides a critique on the functionalities of the ODL system, especially the open universities, with plausible arguments, and touches upon all the crucial aspects of the system broadly. The author takes advantage of being a witness of the system as an insider, which not only lets him analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the system minutely but also to present issue-based solutions with a futuristic approach focusing on the important aspects of relevance and quality. The aspect of quality flows as an under-current throughout the discussion by the author in the volume. The arguments framed by him are convincing and bring the readers on to the same page as the author. Though some typos can be noticed in the text here and there, the effort of the author in writing down the current and future scenario of the distance higher education system in India, with a focus on larger issues confronting the system, deserves appreciation. I do hope that the book will give food for thought to all – the policy makers, the practitioners and the novice users of the ODL system, i.e., the learners at large.
- ItemOpen AccessBook Review: Promoting Use and Contribution of Open Educational Resources(2017-11) Panda, Santosh; Gaskell, AnneThe current movement toward Open Educational Resources (OER) has a long historical precedence in the open education movements including that of the provision of equality of educational opportunity, recognising, though, that two individuals, not even twins, learn the same way. This later became a more contentious issue for the designers of OER as well as the planners with regard to, respectively: how best to serve the individual learning styles of learners, and what could be the cost-efficiency of alternative learning resources, including OERs. // The above unresolved issues notwithstanding, the promise of OER (and subsequently MOOCs as a part of OER and the OER movement), starting from UNESCO’s coinage of the term and MIT’s opening up of large numbers of courses for free, and subsequent initiatives by UKOU, IGNOU, COL, EdX, Corsera, Udacity, Khan Academy and many others, has generated considerable enthusiasm in policy makers as well as academic leaders and teachers. ‘Open sharing’ has been a foundational issue for large-scale use of OER; and it is as much personal as systemic. Therefore, it is imperative that these and a multitude of dimensions need to be rigorously examined through research for its effective / productive use of OER. The now-recognised debate on adoption and use of ICT through the “dominant diffusion model of the past, and the social shaping model of the recent times” may help us appreciate how best OER can be leveraged to derive the most utility. The end-user is the key to OER theory and practice.
- ItemOpen AccessBook Review: Skills Development for Inclusive and Sustainable Growth in Developing Asia-Pacific(2016) George, NancyThis publication is a collection of articles compiled from papers presented at a forum convened by the Asia Development Bank in Manila in December 2011. The forum brought together a diverse group of international experts, CEOs of companies and institutions engaged in skills and workforce development, and representatives of multilateral agencies, government, and the private sector to address the challenges of skills development in South Asian and Pacific countries. The targets of the publication include educators, employers and policy makers in the developing Asia-Pacific countries. Available in Open Access at http://goo.gl/7dG56F
- ItemOpen AccessBuilding an Efficient and Effective Test Management System in an ODL Institution(2017-07) Yusof, Safiah M; Lim, Tick M; Png, Leo; Khatab, Zainuriyah A; Singh, Harvinder K DOpen University Malaysia (OUM) is progressively moving towards implementing assessment on demand and online assessment. This move is deemed necessary for OUM to continue to be the leading provider of flexible learning. OUM serves a very large number of students each semester and these students are vastly distributed throughout the country. As the number of learners keeps growing, the task of managing and administering examinations every semester has become increasingly laborious, time consuming and costly. In trying to deal with this situation and improve the assessment processes, OUM has embarked on the development and employment of a test management system. This test management system is named OUM QBank. The initial objectives of QBank development were aimed at enabling the systematic classification and storage of test items, as well as the auto-generation of test papers based on the required criteria. However, it was later agreed that the QBank should be a more comprehensive test management system that manages not just all assessment items but also includes the features to facilitate quality control and flexibility of use. These include the functionality to perform item analyses and also online examination. This paper identifies the key elements and the important theoretical basis in ensuring the design and development of an effective and efficient system.
- ItemMetadata onlyA Collaborative Approach to OER Policy and Guidelines Development in the Commonwealth: The Case of Botswana, Cameroon, and Sri Lanka(2018-04) Abeywardena, Ishan S; Karunanayaka, Shironica P; Nkwenti, Michael N; Tladi, Lekopanye; McGreal, Rory; Conrad, DianneAccess to relevant learning resources is an important aspect in ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all as outlined in the sustainable development goal 4 (SDG4). The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) has identified the development of open educational resources (OER) as a potential answer to these challenges. A total of 29 provincial/regional OER policies and guidelines were developed in Sri Lanka, Botswana, and Cameroon closely involving 608 provincial/regional policymakers from the general education system. The innovation of this project lies in the collaborative approach adopted for OER policy/guideline development where a maximum number of policymakers at the provincial/regional level have been included in the policy development process. Key applications of the approach are mass-sensitization of policymakers, identification of champions in each province or region to drive the OER agenda forward, and the development of policies/guidelines tailored to the specific needs of a particular jurisdiction. The paper will also highlight the success factors, challenges, and the follow-up activities of the project.
- ItemOpen AccessCommunity Engagement to End Child Early Forced Marriage - Experiences in Selected South Asian Countries(2017-11) Ferreira, Frances; Kamal, Mostafa A; Gaskell, AnneSustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5, “achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls”, emphasises the need for “providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in political and economic decision-making processes [which] will fuel sustainable economies and benefit societies and humanity at large” (UN, 2015). Millions of girls are forced into early marriage for economic and cultural reasons and denied the opportunity for education. Within the context of sustainable development, it is critical to raise awareness among communities that child marriage has wide ranging negative consequences for development and that allowing girls to have education and training can add enormous value to their society as well as their personal and family lives. This study aims to identify the role of community engagement and local community organisations in contributing towards ending child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) through ensuring equitable access of marginalised and out-of-school girls to education and training. The study was based on data collected from surveys that had been administered to 755 out-of-school girls, affected by CEFM in both urban and rural areas of three selected South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) countries, that is, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India.
- ItemOpen AccessCommunity Radio and Sustainability: A Participatory Research Initiative(2015-04) Arora, Venu; Ramakrishnan, N; Fernandez, LeoneaCommunity Radio in India completed a decade in 2012; currently there are 183 operational community radio stations in India, and 15 in Bangladesh. Nepal has a longer history of CR with 246 community radio stations on air. Community Radio has been supported through a policy in India and Bangladesh and for several years through an open media environment in Nepal. The Community Radio practices in India, Bangladesh and Nepal are varied and there are nuanced differences in the approaches to community radio in these countries. This research is an attempt to explore sustainability of CR in the South Asia region through a participatory approach of working with selected CR stations in the region that represent the diversity in the sector. The research uses a mixed method approach including qualitative and quantitative tools and is founded on Ethnographic Action Research principles. Research methodologies were validated through a stakeholder process. Community researchers from each participating CR station were trained in ethnographic research tools. Data was collected over six months and included weekly diary notes, significant good practice stories, brief survey questionnaire, annual budgets and monthly expense sheets of the CRS. Ideosync researchers undertook field visits and in depth interviews with CR staff, volunteers and management committee members.