Browsing 06. Pan-Commonwealth Forum 6 (PCF6), 2010 by Subject "Conflict and Insecurity"
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PublicationContinuity education in emergency and conflict situations: the case for using open, distance and flexible learning (ODFL)( 2010-11) Morpeth, Ros ; Creed, CharlotteEmergency and conflict in countries such as Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Haiti and Afghanistan have made us more aware of the long-term serial disruption and psychosocial damage faced by people caught up in emergency and conflict areas. Open, distance and flexible learning (ODFL) has sometimes been employed in these regions to maintain a degree of continuity in education. For the most part, however, this role has been ad hoc, short-term and often bearing limited relation to the psychosocial and educational needs of the displaced or traumatised populations it serves. // But could ODFL play a more planned, significant and relevant role in emergency and conflict regions and if so, how? This paper will address this core question. We identify particular aspects of ODFL programmes, which are especially useful in reaching and extending basic and secondary education to hard-to-reach children and those in emergency and conflict contexts. Through a specific case study of the recent conflict in Sri Lanka, we show how ODFL is currently being used for these groups and to what effect. We argue that by building on proven achievements and integrating ODFL more systematically into the existing national planning for conflict and emergency zones, it could play a significant and cost-effective role in these regions and also, more widely, in facilitating links between the non-formal and formal sectors and improving the quality of provision.
PublicationEnhancing Quality Learning in a Fragile Environment: Case of the Palestinian Refugees( 2010-11) Menon, MohanUNRWA Support to Palestinian Refugees // United Nations Relief and Work Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has been providing services to Palestine refugees for the last 60 years in not only relief and rehabilitation but also in development areas including health and education in five regions/fields viz. Gaza, West Bank, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. This paper attempts to discuss the complexity of providing quality education in the Palestine region with different socio-political and conflict situations facing also additional problems in inter-field travel and transportation. The Agency has been adopting traditional ways of education and training through mainly face to face mode within institutional context, but lately has started working on use of information and communication technologies and other innovative practices for educating the refugee children/youth and training teachers and other support personnel. While the Programme has done fairly well in providing access to refugee children for basic education, it has not achieved in maintaining quality in its provision due to many internal and external factors affecting the Programme. This paper attempts to describe the conflict ridden and fragile environment in which the programme operates, highlights its achievement especially in almost universal access of refugee children to basic education, identifies the quality issues inherent in the system and describe the various ICT applications and other innovative practices being adopted and planned for enhancing the quality of educational provision including coverage of learners with special educational needs. Discussion will focus on how these applications are helping or expected to help in increasing access as well as enhancing quality of the education and training provisions. // UNESCO-UNRWA Education Programme // As a result of an agreement signed between UNESCO and UNRWA in 1951, UNESCO assumed the technical responsibility of the Education Programme through the secondment of a number of technical and managerial staff on a non-reimbursable loan to the Agency. Since 1995, UNESCO has been directly recruiting the Director of Education and Chief of Educationa Planning and Management and also been sponsoring some four senior-level local area staff for advise to UNRWA’s Commissioner-General on all policy aspects of the operational and technical activities of the Education Programme. Thanks to the ongoing technical support from UNESCO the Education Programme of UNRWA has made significant contributions to Palestinian human development, shaping the lives, aspirations and futures of three generations of Palestine refugees. Historically, the Agency has enjoyed a reputation for innovation, dynamism and vision in its approach and commitment to education. As of 2008, there were approximately 4.7 million refugees registered with UNRWA. Almost 40% of the 4.7 million registered refugees are estimated to be children below the age of 18 Years. UNRWA has been providing education services for over 60 years.
PublicationA Survey Conducted Focusing the Educational Development of a War Affected Zone in Sri Lanka (With reference to Ampara Education Zone)( 2010-11) De Zoysa, T Srini VisakaIn 1987 the 13th Amendment of the Constitution was enacted followed by the passage of the Provincial Councils Act No. 42 of 1987 which provided for the establishment of Provincial Councils. Divisional Education Offices were established and was responsible for the implementation of all educational programmes within the division. In 1992 Education Zones each headed by a Director of Education were created by amalgamation of several Education Divisions. Ampara Education Zone is one of the six education zones situated in Ampara District in the Eastern Province in Sri Lanka. This Study was conducted in the Ampara Education Zone which has four Education Divisions. // The population in Ampara Education Zone is multi–ethnic, multi-religious and multi–cultural in nature, where Sinhalese, Muslims and Tamils live together. Farming is the main livelihood and fishing and dairy farming are optional livelihoods. Ampara is a war affected area, which is situated in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. It consists of war threatened villages where most of the villagers were wiped out by terrorists. Due to this, war threatened families in most of these villages have spent their nights in nearby jungles and the normal livelihoods and the education system were disrupted. This survey was conducted in the intention of identifying strengths and barrios in education in the Ampara Education Zone and to develop an action plan targeting the educational development in the zone.