Browsing by Subject "Agricultural Extension"
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- ItemOpen AccessAchieving Community Development through an Agricultural Extension Programme: Technology Dissemination for Mushroom Farmers(2021-07-20) De Silva, Nilantha; Wijeratne, Mahinda; Panda, SantoshMushroom production is a small-scale business unit in rural areas. The Life Long Learning for Farmers (L3F) Programme aims to enhance the socio-economic conditions for them, increasing their access to and use of knowledge and technology. This study evaluates the outcomes of the L3F Programme at the community level. Data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire survey. The sample consisted of 30 L3F farmers. Farmers’ achievement was assessed by the Farmer Performance Index (FPI). Results indicate that mushroom farmers have scaled up their production; have improved their productivity; designed new experiments to minimise the impact of pests and diseases; focused on environmental sustainability and scientific mushroom production; and improved the quality of packaging. The mobile app Bimmal Govi, blended with Information and Communication Technology, helped them to move with the latest technological advancements. The L3F Programme has increased the standards of mushroom production, helping the farmers become promising entrepreneurs.
- ItemMetadata onlyAG191A: Fundamentals of Agricultural Extension(2020-04) Basavaprabhu, JirliThe term ‘Extension’, has different connotations in different countries. In India, it refers to ‘Transfer of technology; in USA, it means ‘Education’; while in UK, it is advisory work and so on. Extension education is relatively the youngest science, and has the history of about 170 years. There are many misconceptions about extension which need to be addressed. Extension education has developed as a discipline and also as a profession. In recent years, it has emerged as an important service sector. With the developments in technology information, it has emerged as important input in agricultural production. The role of extension professional is to treat the information according to the needs of the client system. Providing customized information to the needy clients is the priority area of extension. // This course deals with objectives, principles, philosophy and dimensions of extension. Programme planning is part of extension. The historic efforts of planning and implementation of extension programmes provide us insights to develop future extension programmes. The implications of innovations and its consequences are the components that have been covered in the course. The latest trends in extension science herald significance of extension in agricultural production. An effort has been made to differentiate between extension educationists and extension service providers. The understandings of fundamentals of extension education lead to development of extension professionals.
- ItemOpen AccessAgricultural Extension Agents' Use of Learning-Based Extension Methods in Trinidad and Tobago(2020-07-20) Ramjattan, Jeet; Chowdhury, Ataharul; Ganpat, WayneAgricultural extension agents are highly credited for their roles of providing advice to farmers and supporting their learning and decision-making to improve livelihoods. The use of appropriate methods to promote learning in developing countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, has often been highlighted as a development priority. Nevertheless, agricultural extension agents encounter difficulties in applying new competencies. Understanding and utilising appropriate methods based on farmers’ learning needs is critical. This study sought to investigate extension agents’ use of learning-based extension methods. A survey was conducted with 106 extension agents. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to analyse data. The findings show that male agents prefer Plant Clinics and Farmer Field School learning methods. Social influence and networking among organisations had a significant influence on the use of Discovery Based Learning methods. The positive influence of social pressure motivated the agents. The study recommends supporting facilitative conditions through a coordinated programme and to focus on farmers’ learning as a critical consideration for improving the use and impact of learning-based methods.
- ItemOpen AccessAlternative Learning Platforms for Agri-Students through e-Mediation: An initiative of agMOOCs(2019-09) Jirli, Basavaprabhu; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, AbhishekAgricultural education in India is offered through a network of 75 State Agricultural Universities, f ive Deemed Universities , four Central Universities with faculty of Agriculture, three Central Agricultural Universities and few privately owned colleges of agriculture affiliated to traditional sta te universities. Each Agricultural University has a number of constituent colleges. However, p aucity of quality faculty has remained an emerging issue. S pecialization of the faculty also matter s while imparting education. Providing q uality inputs to the learners spread over large geographical area demands e - Mediation. One such platform was created by Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur entitled “agMOOCs” in 2015 .The courses offered through the platform h a ve attracted participa nts from eve ry state of India and seven countries. The paper is a partial analysis of the efforts of agMOOC s in penetrating agricultural education system as an alternative platform for students of agriculture and allied sciences . More than tw o lakh learners have accessed courses so far . The feedback of learners is highly encouraging. So far the author s ha ve offered t hree courses in agMOOC s platform during 2017 and 2018 . The highest number of learners registered in a course was 48 84 . There is an increasing trend in number of registrations on the platform, which shows effectiveness of the course s and penetration among agricultural fraternity. Age of majority registered learners was up to 24 years (76 per cent). More than 65 per cent offered courses to enhance their knowledge. Home was the most preferred place of access (65 per cent). About 60 percent learners preferred the agMOOCs app to access course contents. Gender and preference of app are not independent of each other, Gender and age of participants are not independent, there was no association between range of learners and relevancy of quiz. There exists association between range of learners and pace of content delivery. //Paper ID 40
- ItemOpen AccessAssisting Severely Disadvantaged Agricultural Areas in Pakistan: The Potential for Improving the Interaction and Effectiveness of Development Partners Research, Extension and Village Religious Leaders(2010-11) Khan, NowshadAt present, in the NWFP of Pakistan, village religious leaders play no formal role in agricultural development. Yet, historically they have had functional involvement in other development sectors such as education through the mosque schools programme (Government of Pakistan, 1985). Hidayat Ullah (1986) recommended that programmes need to be developed for the possible involvement of religious leaders in agricultural development. Yet since then, little direct action to bring this about has been forthcoming which is particularly unfortunate given the continuing difficulties with information transmission of complex agricultural issues being experienced by disadvantaged farming communities in the NWFP highlighted by Nowshad Khan, 1999. // Moreover, available literature on research in Pakistan into the potential involvement of religious leaders in agricultural development is largely lacking. Yet, this kind of study has been occasionally conducted in other Islamic countries. Fernandez (1989) reported that the mosque, as a local and indigenous institution in the Malay community (Malaysia), can be utilized as an effective channel to reach the majority of village farmers. He noted that the content of the Friday address at the mosque was not necessarily on religious matters per se but could also relate to community, national and developmental issues like agriculture, health, nutrition and the need to participate in development projects. As religious leaders have been used as a successful motivational force for change in other Islamic and non-Islamic countries, the hypothesis, that they could contribute a role in an improved model of agricultural information transfer in disadvantaged agricultural communities in the NWFP, is not unreasonable (Alebikiya et al. 1993; Morner and Hansen, 1991; Webb, 1990).
- ItemOpen AccessBlended Learning using agMOOCs as a Tool for Professional Development: A Case of Students of Agriculture in India(2022-09) Jirli, Basavaprabhu; Maji, SaikatPCF10 Sub-theme: Inspiring Innovations // According to University Grants Commission (a body of Government of India) Blended learning is an instructional methodology, a teaching and learning approach that combines face-to-face classroom methods with computer mediated activities to deliver instruction. agMOOCs a learning platform for students of agriculture and allied sciences has developed 22 MOOCs so far on agriculture and allied sciences since 2015. The platform was developed by Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India) in collaboration with Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver. Of which the author has offered three courses on agricultural extension. More than two million students have accessed the courses on agMOOCs platform and benefitted in their learning activities. In the last couple of years during the global pandemic period the educational activities were also facing difficulties. An effort was made to adopt the blended learning methodology for masters’ students of agriculture at Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The method of participant observation and discussion with learners were used to collect the data. Whole enumeration was the sample size. The data was analysed using descriptive qualitative methods by adopting steps viz., i. quick data, ii. Coding data, iii. Qualitative analysis and Quantitative analysis iv. Interpretation of results. Students were asked to go through the videos, PPTs and transcripts available on the platform before coming to the class. The classes were organised in hybrid mode (online as well as offline). The respective topics scheduled for the day were discussed in the class instead of explaining the contents as in case of regular classes. The results of the study reveal that 1. Enhancement in the grasping ability of students 2. Improvement in analysing the concepts and contents of the course 3. Enhanced interaction with course instructor 4. Surge in academic discussion abilities of learners 5. Augmentation in framing questions to be asked in the classroom. The challenges while using the methodology include maintaining learners interest over a period of time, preparation of contents for circulation before to be brief enough and providing exhaustive resources for the learners. // Paper ID 4289
- ItemOpen AccessCapacity building of agriculture extension officers and farmers in ICT skills to minimize the digital divide and construct a sustainable social learning capital capable of using ICT for knowledge acquisition and sharing(2013-11) Senadheera, Prasad; Kulasekara, Geetha U; Watthewidanage, Jayantha; Perera, Pradeepa; Senevirathne, M A P K; Prabash, Dineth; Coomaraswamy, UmaTraditionally majority of the rural farming community in Sri Lanka rely on agriculture extension officers for advice, guidance and training opportunities on crop cultivation, particularly due to government assistance schemes in agriculture. Ongoing COL-L3F project implemented by the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL) recognized that it was an essential pre-requisite to develop ICT skills in the officers involved with agri-extension services to establish a sustainable ICT based knowledge acquisition system in farming community. Preliminary survey revealed that 37 % of 175 officers who underwent training had prior exposure to ICT, whereas only 22% of them used it in extension services. Although 26% had an exposure to the internet, less than 10% used it for knowledge acquisition. Farming community had no prior knowledge in ICT. A programme was developed by OUSL to train 175 officers involved in agri-extension service in the Department of Export Agriculture along with some farmers from the farming community. The programme consists of a ‘bridge course’ in ICT, custom made modules on application of ICT in agriculture, knowledge acquisition through ODL and use of OER was offered by OUSL. Results of the summative assessments, quantitative and qualitative studies conducted by means of a questionnaire and interviews revealed that 80% of officers (140 ) have successfully completed the examinations and qualified for OUSL certificate on computer literacy. Sixty-six percent of them have planned ICT based activities for extension service. Sixty percent claimed that their ICT literacy level increased at least to ‘average level’ from ‘unfamiliar’ or ‘new comer’ status. Eighteen percent stated that they are at the level of ‘adaptation’ or ‘creative application’ on applying ICT in agriculture. Many have acquired skills in ODL and use of OER for knowledge acquisition. Motivated by the programme, farmers are in the process of building an IT resource center in the village. // Paper ID: 427
- ItemOpen AccessChanging Roles of Agricultural Extension: Harnessing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Adapting to Stresses Envisaged Under Climate Change(2011) Meera, Shaik N; Balaji, Venkataraman; Muthuraman, P; Sailaja, B; Dixit, SThe linkages between agriculture and climate are pronounced and often complex. Agricultural systems are most sensitive to extreme climatic events such as droughts, floods and hailstorms, and to seasonal variability and changing rainfall patterns. The role of inadequate institutional support is frequently cited in the literature as a hindrance to adaptation. In context of climate change, extension will increasingly face challenges of addressing vulnerability. The effectiveness of extension will be influenced by the factors such as identifying vulnerable regions, vulnerable groups, farmers having multiple stressors, areas which will be doubly exposed, for assessing and strengthening the coping strategies among vulnerable regions/groups and improve the ability for adaptive measures. Effective and timely provision of information will play a crucial role in future extension. Despite the need for timely and well-targeted information on climatic risks, there are currently a number of gaps and challenges in providing climate information to the farmers. Of late, organisations in agriculture realised the importance of managing the Knowledge (Implicit & Explicit; Internal & External) for the dissemination purposes. In this chapter, we have discussed at length the cases for developing insights into the contemporary initiatives of integrating ICTs and climate information in extension. In order to promote the development of appropriate community-based ICT endeavors for sharing climate change information and technology options at grassroots level, it is important that we also understand the attributes that must be considered for building more practical and broad based approaches. For the benefit of the readers, a comprehensive framework involving various components of climate change vis a vis Extension is provided. In the context of climate change, information needs assessment and strategies for strengthening Research-Extension-Farmers linkages are discussed in this chapter. Further looking at the complexities of climate change scenario, it is proposed that ICT enabled extension framework may be tested, refined and adapted in future extension endeavours.
- ItemOpen AccessConnected Learning and Ag Extension: Shall the twain meet?(2016-01-05) Balaji, VenkataramanPresented by Dr. V. Balaji at the 8th Global Communications Research Association in Bangalore, India, 5-7 January 2016.
- ItemOpen AccessFrom Learning to Empowerment: A Study of Smallholder Farmers in South West Uganda(2015-11) Carr, Alexis; Tenywa, Moses; Balasubramanian, KThe relationship between education and empowerment has been widely debated in development literature. In recent times, social capital and community-centric learning have been increasingly recognized as important variables in the empowerment process. This paper outlines the development of a ‘Three-dimensional Empowerment Framework’, and looks at the relationship between a community-centric learning process and empowerment in selected villages in Uganda. Based on a study of two villages, the paper evaluates the role of the Lifelong Learning for Farmers (L3F) programme, developed and supported by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), in empowering farming communities. The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of empowerment in the selected farming communities and to identify factors that may contribute to empowerment, including the L3F programme. Two sample villages with similar demographics were used for comparison, one L3F village and one non-L3F village, with 62 respondents from the L3F village and 78 from the non-L3F village, selected randomly. A survey, which included demographic questions as well as an empowerment scale, was administered to respondents from both groups. The responses were analysed and a regression model showing the factors that influenced empowerment was developed. The study shows that the integration of human capital (viewed purely from learning, knowledge acquisition, reflective practices, skills and competencies), social capital and financial capital, has a positive impact on development outcomes such as empowerment.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Role of Distance Education and E- learning in Agricultural Extension Services(2013-11) Mundi, Nda E; Tenebe, Vincent AEducation has very significance and strategic role in all aspects of the development of any nation. Distance education and e-learning role in agriculture extension services is a viable mechanism for the upliftment of the standard of education and in the dissemination of advanced and adequate teaching. Distance education has become a popular method of instruction, especially for those with demanding full-time jobs or who find it difficult to invest time and expense in travel. The increasing improved connectivity to the internet and rapid development in mobile access in Africa accelerates the promotion of e-learning to provide quality higher education on the continent. To this end, this paper examines the role of distance education and e-learning in agricultural extension services. It discusses the concepts of distance education and e-learning, Agricultural Extension as a concept, functions of Agricultural Extension Agents (AEAs). Finally, it highlights the current trends in the training of AEAs through ODL and e-learning to fill in their deficiency gap. // Paper ID: 484
- ItemOpen AccessUsing Information and Communications Technology for Agricultural Extension(2005) Maru, Ajit; Latchem, ColinAgriculture is the mainstay of many low-income or developing nations’ economies and exports, and provides for the livelihoods of billions of smallholders. These smallholder farmers face low or reducing crop yields and incomes due to land degradation from over-farming, mono-cropping and a reduction in the labour force from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Women smallholders today play an increasing role in agricultural production but often lack the capital, labour, time and educational levels of their male counterparts, resulting in decreased production, less nutritious crops and community pauperisation. Agricultural extension programmes can provide much-needed help in the form of practical field-advice, innovations from scientists and practitioners, and sound commodity-marketing principles. Yet the enormous demand for smallholder training can never be met through conventional extension methods. Traditionally, extension transfers knowledge from researchers or external experts to farmers through training, demonstration plots and field visits. These programmes rely on face-to-face teaching and learning, tend to be propagated slowly, are small in scale and limited in coverage. Smallholder extension programmes have always been a low priority; nowadays, the increasing privatisation and commercialisation of extension programmes places them even further out of the reach of communities most in need.