Technology Application in Teaching and Learning: Second-Order Review of Meta-analyses
This second-order meta-analysis (i.e., systematic quantitative synthesis of individual meta-analyses) summarises how the use of technology affects learning (achievement outcomes) in three different educational settings: in-class, online learning and blended learning. Comprehensive literature searches identified 915 potentially relevant publications. Final review covers 131 primary meta-analyses (featuring 134 independent effect sizes) across settings, technology types, grade levels and subject matters. Aggregated effect sizes were organised in three independent collections around the setting type/delivery mode (in-class, online and blended), while technology type and major functionality, grade level and subject matter, plus publication date, coverage and representativeness, as well as some aspects of implementation quality of the included meta-analyses were all coded and analysed as moderator variables. Additional sensitivity analysis and analyses of methodological moderator variables further reduced the data set to 118 effect sizes distributed across three educational settings: in-class, online learning and blended learning.