Open Schooling for Secondary & Higher Secondary Education: Costs and Effectiveness in India and Namibia
Recent progress towards the achievement of the second U.N. Millennium Development Goal, Universal Primary Education (UPE), means that many more children are completing primary education and looking for opportunities to enter secondary education. There is little likelihood that governments facing the challenges of meeting the UPE target will be able to meet a further challenge of providing vastly increased access to opportunities for secondary education. Rapid expansion of secondary provision to meet frustrated demand from primary school leavers and the needs of young adults previously denied secondary education opportunities will likely require investment in approaches that are less tied to traditional methods of schooling. It is within this context that this study has been conceived. "Open Schooling for Secondary and Higher Education" explores the provision of secondary level Open Schooling in India and Namibia, which are vastly different in their basic characteristics. The study examines on the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) in India and the Namibian College of Open Learning (NAMCOL). The focus is on issues such as cost-benefit of the open school model, student profiles, how open schools complement the formal system, learner success, course development, open school management and quality assurance. The study was carried out by two experts in the field, Professor Badri N. Koul, who researched NIOS, and Professor Greville Rumble, who researched NAMCOL, between April and October 2007.